Emerging priorities for HIV service delivery

Autoři: Nathan Ford aff001;  Elvin Geng aff003;  Tom Ellman aff004;  Catherine Orrell aff005;  Peter Ehrenkranz aff006;  Izukanji Sikazwe aff007;  Andreas Jahn aff008;  Miriam Rabkin aff009;  Stephen Ayisi Addo aff010;  Anna Grimsrud aff011;  Sydney Rosen aff012;  Isaac Zulu aff013;  William Reidy aff009;  Thabo Lejone aff014;  Tsitsi Apollo aff015;  Charles Holmes aff007;  Ana Francisca Kolling aff017;  Rosina Phate Lesihla aff018;  Huu Hai Nguyen aff019;  Baker Bakashaba aff020;  Lastone Chitembo aff021;  Ghion Tiriste aff022;  Meg Doherty aff001;  Helen Bygrave aff004
Působiště autorů: Department HIV & Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland aff001;  Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa aff002;  Center for Dissemination and Implementation, Institute for Public Health, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America aff003;  Southern African Medical Unit, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa aff004;  Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa aff005;  Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America aff006;  Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia aff007;  Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi aff008;  ICAP, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York, United States of America aff009;  National AIDS Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Accra, Ghana aff010;  International AIDS Society, Cape Town, South Africa aff011;  Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff012;  Division of Global HIV & TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff013;  SolidarMed, Swiss Organization for Health in Africa, Butha-Buthe, Lesotho aff014;  Ministry of Health and Child Care Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe aff015;  Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States of America aff016;  Department of Surveillance, Prevention and Control of STIs, HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis, Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil aff017;  National AIDS Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Maseru, Lesotho aff018;  Treatment and Care Department, Viet Nam Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam aff019;  The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), Kampala, Uganda aff020;  Department HIV, World Health Organization Lusaka, Zambia aff021;  Department HIV, World Health Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia aff022
Vyšlo v časopise: Emerging priorities for HIV service delivery. PLoS Med 17(2): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003028
Kategorie: Policy Forum
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003028


Nathan Ford and co-authors discuss global priorities in the provision of HIV prevention and treatment services.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Antiretroviral therapy – HIV – HIV diagnosis and management – HIV prevention – Human families – Public and occupational health – Tuberculosis


1. Ford N, Ball A, Baggaley R, Vitoria M, Low-Beer D, Penazzato M, et al. The WHO public health approach to HIV treatment and care: looking back and looking ahead. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018; 18(3): e76–e86. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30482-6 29066132

2. Gilks CF, Crowley S, Ekpini R, Gove S, Perriens J, Souteyrand Y, et al. The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings. Lancet 2006; 368(9534): 505–10. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69158-7 16890837

3. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013 July. 272 p.

4. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. Second Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 July. 480 p.

5. World Health Organization. Maintaining and improving quality of care within HIV clinical services. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019 July [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/325857/WHO-CDS-HIV-19.17-eng.pdf?ua=1

6. Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, Jordan K, Leslie HH, Roder-deWan S, et al. High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6(11): e1196–e252. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30386-3 30196093

7. World Health Organization. Progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections 2019. Accountability for the global health sector strategies, 2016–2021. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

8. World Health Organization. Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification. Supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.

9. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(9):830–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1600693 27424812

10. INSIGHT START Study Group, Lundgren JD, Babiker AG, Gordin F, Emery S, Grund B, et al. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(9): 795–807. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506816 26192873

11. TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 Study Group, Danel C, Moh R, Gabillard D, Badje A, Le Carrou J, et al. A Trial of Early Antiretrovirals and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(9): 808–22. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507198 26193126

12. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services for a changing epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

13. Ruzagira E, Baisley K, Kamali A, Biraro S, Grosskurth H, Working Group on Linkage to HIVC. Linkage to HIV care after home-based HIV counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2017; 22(7): 807–21. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12888 28449385

14. Labhardt ND, Ringera I, Lejone TI, Klimkait T, Muhairwe J, Amstutz A, et al. Effect of Offering Same-Day ART vs Usual Health Facility Referral During Home-Based HIV Testing on Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among Adults with HIV in Lesotho: The CASCADE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018; 319(11): 1103–12. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.1818 29509839

15. Rosen S, Fox MP. Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2011; 8(7): e1001056. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001056 21811403

16. Ford N, Migone C, Calmy A, Kerschberger B, Kanters S, Nsanzimana S, et al. Benefits and risks of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2018; 32(1): 17–23. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001671 29112073

17. World Health Organization. Guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

18. Mateo-Urdiales A, Johnson S, Smith R, Nachega JB, Eshun-Wilson I. Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 6: CD012962. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012962.pub2 31206168

19. Brennan A, Larson B, Tsikhutsu I, Bii M, Fox M, Venter W, et al. Same-day ART initiation in the SLATE trial in Kenya: preliminary results. CROI: Proceedings of the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2019 Mar 4–7; Seattle, Washington. Abstract 1018.

20. Protopopescu C, Carrieri MP, Raffi F, Picard O, Hardel L, Piroth L, et al. Brief Report: Prolonged Viral Suppression Over a 12-Year Follow-up of HIV-Infected Patients: The Persistent Impact of Adherence at 4 Months After Initiation of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in the ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE Cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017; 74(3): 293–7. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001249 27861235

21. Ford N, Darder M, Spelman T, Maclean E, Mills E, Boulle A. Early adherence to antiretroviral medication as a predictor of long-term HIV virological suppression: five-year follow up of an observational cohort. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(5): e10460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010460 20485480

22. MacPherson P, Lalloo DG, Webb EL, Maheswaran H, Choko AT, Makombe SD et al. Effect of optional home initiation of HIV care following HIV self-testing on antiretroviral therapy initiation among adults in Malawi: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014; 312(4): 372–9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.6493 25038356

23. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29. Identifier NCT03630549, Village-based vs Clinic-based ART Care—a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Lesotho; 2018 Aug 15 [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03630549

24. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29. Identifier NCT02929992, Delivery Optimization for Antiretroviral Therapy (The DO ART Study) (DO ART); 2016 Oct 11 [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02929992

25. Tun W, Apicella L, Casalini C, Bikaru D, Mbita G, Jeremiah K et al. Community-Based Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Delivery for Female Sex Workers in Tanzania: 6-Month ART Initiation and Adherence. AIDS Behav. 2019; 23(Suppl 2):142–152. doi: 10.1007/s10461-019-02549-x 31197700

26. UNICEF. Children, HIV and AIDS. Global Snapshot. 2018 Dec. Available from: https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Global-snapshot-2018.pdf

27. Estill J, Ford N, Salazar-Vizcaya L, Haas AD, Blaser N, Habiyambere V, et al. The need for second-line antiretroviral therapy in adults in sub-Saharan Africa up to 2030: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet HIV. 2016; 3(3): e132–9. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00016-3 26939736

28. Médecins Sans Frontières. Making viral load routine. Successes and challenges in the implementation of routine HIV viral load monitoring. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.

29. International Aids Society. Differentiated Service Delivery: Guidance [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.differentiatedcare.org/Guidance

30. Mody A, Roy M, Sikombe K, Savory T, Holmes C, Bolton-Moore C, et al. Improved Retention With 6-Month Clinic Return Intervals for Stable Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Zambia. Clin Infect Dis. 2018; 66(2): 237–43. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix756 29020295

31. Kim MH, Wanless RS, Caviness AC, Golin R, Amzel A, Ahmed S, et al. Multimonth Prescription of Antiretroviral Therapy Among Children and Adolescents: Experiences From the Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative in 6 African Countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018; 78 Suppl 2: S71–S80.

32. World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control, President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), International AIDS Society. Key considerations for differentiated antiretroviral therapy delivery for specific populations: children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women and key populations. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017.

33. Assefa T, Melaku Z, Amdino W, Abebe A, Rabkin M, Hartsough K, et al. Implementation of appointment spacing model of differentiated care in Ethiopia-successes and challenges. Proceedings of AIDS 2018; Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2018 July 23–27. Abstract FRAE0101.

34. McCarthy EA, Subramaniam HL, Prust ML, Prescott MR, Mpasela F, Mwango A, et al. Quality improvement intervention to increase adherence to ART prescription policy at HIV treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia: A cluster randomized trial. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(4): e0175534. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175534 28419106

35. Zanolini A, Sikombe K, Sikazwe I, Eshun-Wilson I, Somwe P, Bolton Moore C, et al. Understanding preferences for HIV care and treatment in Zambia: Evidence from a discrete choice experiment among patients who have been lost to follow-up. PLoS Med. 2018; 15(8): e1002636. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002636 30102693

36. Eshun-Wilson I, Mukumbwa-Mwenechanya M, Kim HY, Zannolino A, Mwamba CP, Dowdy D, et al. Differentiated care preferences of stable patients on ART in Zambia: A discrete choice experiment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019. 15;81(5):540–546.

37. Viswanathan S, Justice AC, Alexander GC, Brown TT, Gandhi NR, McNicholl IR, et al. Adherence and HIV RNA Suppression in the Current Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015; 69(4): 493–8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000643 25886923

38. Boender TS, Sigaloff KC, McMahon JH, Kiertiburanakul S, Jordan MR, Barcarolo J, et al. Long-term Virological Outcomes of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015; 61(9): 1453–61. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ556 26157050

39. Penn AW, Azman H, Horvath H, Taylor KD, Hickey MD, Rajan J, et al. Supportive interventions to improve retention on ART in people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13(12): e0208814. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208814 30550574

40. Kanters S, Park JJ, Chan K, Socias ME, Ford N, Forrest JI, et al. Interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet HIV. 2017; 4(1): e31–e40. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30206-5 27863996

41. International AIDS Society. Differentiated care for HIV: A decision framework for antiretroviral therapy delivery. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019. [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.differentiatedcare.org/Portals/0/adam/Content/yS6M-GKB5EWs_uTBHk1C1Q/File/DecisionFramework.pdf

42. Wilkinson L, Harley B, Sharp J, Solomon S, Jacobs S, Cragg C, et al. Expansion of the Adherence Club model for stable antiretroviral therapy patients in the Cape Metro, South Africa 2011–2015. Trop Med Int Health. 2016; 21(6): 743–9. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12699 27097834

43. Luque-Fernandez MA, Van Cutsem G, Goemaere E, Hilderbrand K, Schomaker M, Mantangana N, et al. Effectiveness of patient adherence groups as a model of care for stable patients on antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(2): e56088. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056088 23418518

44. Decroo T, Koole O, Remartinez D, Dos Santos N, Dezembro S, Jofrisse M, et al. Four-year retention and risk factors for attrition among members of community ART groups in Tete, Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health. 2014; 19(5): 514–21. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12278 24898272

45. Pasipamire L, Nesbitt RC, Ndlovu S, Sibanda G, Mamba S, Lukhele N, et al. Retention on ART and predictors of disengagement from care in several alternative community-centred ART refill models in rural Swaziland. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018; 21(9): e25183. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25183 30225946

46. International AIDS Society. Differentiated Service Delivery: Summary of published evidence. [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.differentiatedcare.org/Resources/Summary-of-published-evidence

47. Wilkinson L, Moyo F, Henwood R, Runeyi P, Patel S, de Azevedo V et al. Youth ART adherence clubs: Outcomes from an innovative model for HIV-positive youth in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Proceedings of the 21st International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa; 2016 July 18–22. Abstract TUPEE490.

48. Tsondai PR, Wilkinson LS, Grimsrud A, Mdlalo PT, Ullauri A, Boulle A. High rates of retention and viral suppression in the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy adherence clubs in Cape Town, South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):21649. doi: 10.7448/IAS.20.5.21649 28770595

49. Myer L, Iyun V, Zerbe A, Phillips TK, Brittain K, Mukonda E, et al. Differentiated models of care for postpartum women on antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa: a cohort study. J Int AIDS Soc 2017; 20(Suppl 4): 21636. doi: 10.7448/IAS.20.5.21636 28770593

50. Jeffrey Edwards R, Lyons N, Bhatt C, Samaroo-Francis W, Hinds A, Cyrus E. Implementation and outcomes of a patient tracing programme for HIV in Trinidad and Tobago. Glob Public Health. 2019: 1–9.

51. Nabaggala MS, Parkes-Ratanshi R, Kasirye R, Kiragga A, Castlenuovo B, Ochaka I, et al. Re-engagement in HIV care following a missed visit in rural Uganda. BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1): 762. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3865-9 30359290

52. Rebeiro PF, Bakoyannis G, Musick BS, Braithwaite RS, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Nyandiko W, et al. Observational Study of the Effect of Patient Outreach on Return to Care: The Earlier the Better. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017; 76(2): 141–8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001474 28604501

53. Hoffmann CJ, Milovanovic M, Cichowitz C, Kinghorn A, Martinson NA, Variava E. Readmission and death following hospitalization among people with HIV in South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14(7): e0218902. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218902 31269056

54. Osler M, Hilderbrand K, Goemaere E, Ford N, Smith M, Meintjes G, et al. The Continuing Burden of Advanced HIV Disease Over 10 Years of Increasing Antiretroviral Therapy Coverage in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2018; 66(suppl_2): S118–S25. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1140 29514233

55. Mwamba C, Sharma A, Mukamba N, Beres L, Geng E, Holmes CB, et al. 'They care rudely!': resourcing and relational health system factors that influence retention in care for people living with HIV in Zambia. BMJ Glob Health. 2018; 3(5): e001007. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001007 30483408

56. Layer EH, Brahmbhatt H, Beckham SW, Ntogwisangu J, Mwampashi A, Davis WW, et al. "I pray that they accept me without scolding:" experiences with disengagement and re-engagement in HIV care and treatment services in Tanzania. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014; 28(9): 483–8. doi: 10.1089/apc.2014.0077 25093247

57. Ware NC, Wyatt MA, Geng EH, Kaaya SF, Agbaji OO, Muyindike WR, et al. Toward an understanding of disengagement from HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative study. PLoS Med. 2013; 10(1): e1001369; discussion e. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001369 23341753

58. Keene C, Cassidy T, Makeleni-Leteze T, et al. MSF’s Welcome Service: Supporting re-engagement with care. SA AIDS 2019. Available from: https://samumsf.org/sites/default/files/2019-06/Welcome services poster.pdf doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002444

59. Hurley EA, Harvey SA, Winch PJ, Keita M, Roter DL, Doumbia S, et al. The Role of Patient-Provider Communication in Engagement and Re-engagement in HIV Treatment in Bamako, Mali: A Qualitative Study. J Health Commun 2018; 23(2): 129–43. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2017.1417513 29281593

60. Prabhu S, Harwell JI, Kumarasamy N. Advanced HIV: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Lancet HIV. 2019; 6(8): e540–e51. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30189-4 31285181

61. Wake RM, Britz E, Sriruttan C, Rukasha I, Omar T, Spencer DC, et al. High Cryptococcal Antigen Titers in Blood Are Predictive of Subclinical Cryptococcal Meningitis Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 10;66(5):686–692. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix872 29028998

62. Haldane V, Legido-Quigley H, Chuah FLH, Sigfrid L, Murphy G, Ong SE, et al. Integrating cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes with HIV services: a systematic review. AIDS Care. 2018; 30(1): 103–15. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1344350 28679283

63. Matanje Mwagomba BL, Ameh S, Bongomin P, Juma PA, MacKenzie RK, Kyobutungi C, et al. Opportunities and challenges for evidence-informed HIV-noncommunicable disease integrated care policies and programs: lessons from Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Kenya. AIDS. 2018; 32 Suppl 1: S21–S32.

64. Khabala KB, Edwards JK, Baruani B, Sirengo M, Musembi P, Kosgei RJ, et al. Medication Adherence Clubs: a potential solution to managing large numbers of stable patients with multiple chronic diseases in informal settlements. Trop Med Int Health. 2015; 20(10): 1265–70. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12539 25962952

65. Haddad LB, Feldacker C, Jamieson DJ, Tweya H, Cwiak C, Chaweza T, et al. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(3): e0121039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121039 25811849

66. Tweya H, Feldacker C, Gugsa S, Phiri S. Contraceptive use and pregnancy rates among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: a retrospective cohort study. Reprod Health. 2018; 15(1): 25. doi: 10.1186/s12978-017-0440-0 29426333

Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS Medicine

2020 Číslo 2

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu, se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se