Lotus japonicus karrikin receptors display divergent ligand-binding specificities and organ-dependent redundancy

Autoři: Samy Carbonnel aff001;  Salar Torabi aff001;  Maximilian Griesmann aff001;  Elias Bleek aff001;  Yuhong Tang aff003;  Stefan Buchka aff001;  Veronica Basso aff001;  Mitsuru Shindo aff004;  François-Didier Boyer aff005;  Trevor L. Wang aff006;  Michael Udvardi aff003;  Mark T. Waters aff007;  Caroline Gutjahr aff001
Působiště autorů: LMU Munich, Faculty of Biology, Genetics, Biocenter Martinsried, Martinsried, Germany aff001;  Technical University of Munich (TUM), TUM School of Life Sciences, Plant Genetics, Freising, Germany aff002;  Noble Research Institute, Ardmore, Oklahoma, United States of America aff003;  Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan aff004;  Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Gif-sur-Yvette, France aff005;  John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom aff006;  School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia aff007;  Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: Lotus japonicus karrikin receptors display divergent ligand-binding specificities and organ-dependent redundancy. PLoS Genet 16(12): e1009249. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1009249
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1009249


Karrikins (KARs), smoke-derived butenolides, are perceived by the α/β-fold hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) and thought to mimic endogenous, yet elusive plant hormones tentatively called KAI2-ligands (KLs). The sensitivity to different karrikin types as well as the number of KAI2 paralogs varies among plant species, suggesting diversification and co-evolution of ligand-receptor relationships. We found that the genomes of legumes, comprising a number of important crops with protein-rich, nutritious seed, contain two or more KAI2 copies. We uncover sub-functionalization of the two KAI2 versions in the model legume Lotus japonicus and demonstrate differences in their ability to bind the synthetic ligand GR24ent-5DS in vitro and in genetic assays with Lotus japonicus and the heterologous Arabidopsis thaliana background. These differences can be explained by the exchange of a widely conserved phenylalanine in the binding pocket of KAI2a with a tryptophan in KAI2b, which arose independently in KAI2 proteins of several unrelated angiosperms. Furthermore, two polymorphic residues in the binding pocket are conserved across a number of legumes and may contribute to ligand binding preferences. The diversification of KAI2 binding pockets suggests the occurrence of several different KLs acting in non-fire following plants, or an escape from possible antagonistic exogenous molecules. Unexpectedly, L. japonicus responds to diverse synthetic KAI2-ligands in an organ-specific manner. Hypocotyl growth responds to KAR1, KAR2 and rac-GR24, while root system development responds only to KAR1. This differential responsiveness cannot be explained by receptor-ligand preferences alone, because LjKAI2a is sufficient for karrikin responses in the hypocotyl, while LjKAI2a and LjKAI2b operate redundantly in roots. Instead, it likely reflects differences between plant organs in their ability to transport or metabolise the synthetic KLs. Our findings provide new insights into the evolution and diversity of butenolide ligand-receptor relationships, and open novel research avenues into their ecological significance and the mechanisms controlling developmental responses to divergent KLs.

Klíčová slova:

Arabidopsis thaliana – Flowering plants – Hypocotyl – Legumes – Plant genomics – Rice – Seed germination – Tryptophan


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