Architecture of the Escherichia coli nucleoid


Autoři: Subhash C. Verma aff001;  Zhong Qian aff001;  Sankar L. Adhya aff001
Působiště autorů: Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: Architecture of the Escherichia coli nucleoid. PLoS Genet 15(12): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008456
Kategorie: Topic Page
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008456

Souhrn

How genomes are organized within cells and how the 3D architecture of a genome influences cellular functions are significant questions in biology. A bacterial genomic DNA resides inside cells in a highly condensed and functionally organized form called nucleoid (nucleus-like structure without a nuclear membrane). The Escherichia coli chromosome or nucleoid is composed of the genomic DNA, RNA, and protein. The nucleoid forms by condensation and functional arrangement of a single chromosomal DNA with the help of chromosomal architectural proteins and RNA molecules as well as DNA supercoiling. Although a high-resolution structure of a bacterial nucleoid is yet to come, five decades of research has established the following salient features of the E. coli nucleoid elaborated below: 1) The chromosomal DNA is on the average a negatively supercoiled molecule that is folded as plectonemic loops, which are confined into many independent topological domains due to supercoiling diffusion barriers; 2) The loops spatially organize into megabase size regions called macrodomains, which are defined by more frequent physical interactions among DNA sites within the same macrodomain than between different macrodomains; 3) The condensed and spatially organized DNA takes the form of a helical ellipsoid radially confined in the cell; and 4) The DNA in the chromosome appears to have a condition-dependent 3-D structure that is linked to gene expression so that the nucleoid architecture and gene transcription are tightly interdependent, influencing each other reciprocally. Current advents of high-resolution microscopy, single-molecule analysis and molecular structure determination of the components are expected to reveal the total structure and function of the bacterial nucleoid.

Klíčová slova:

Bacterial genomics – Condensation – DNA – DNA structure – DNA transcription – DNA-binding proteins – Sequence motif analysis – Chromosomal DNA


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Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Léčba akutní pooperační bolesti
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Jiří Málek, CSc.

Nové antipsychotikum kariprazin v léčbě schizofrenie
Autoři: prof. MUDr. Cyril Höschl, DrSc., FRCPsych.

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