Calcium ions trigger the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of necrotic cells

Autoři: Yoshitaka Furuta aff001;  Omar Pena-Ramos aff001;  Zao Li aff001;  Lucia Chiao aff001;  Zheng Zhou aff001
Působiště autorů: Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America aff001;  School of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: Calcium ions trigger the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of necrotic cells. PLoS Genet 17(2): e1009066. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1009066
Kategorie: Research Article


Intracellular Ca2+ level is under strict regulation through calcium channels and storage pools including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mutations in certain ion channel subunits, which cause mis-regulated Ca2+ influx, induce the excitotoxic necrosis of neurons. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, dominant mutations in the DEG/ENaC sodium channel subunit MEC-4 induce six mechanosensory (touch) neurons to undergo excitotoxic necrosis. These necrotic neurons are subsequently engulfed and digested by neighboring hypodermal cells. We previously reported that necrotic touch neurons actively expose phosphatidylserine (PS), an “eat-me” signal, to attract engulfing cells. However, the upstream signal that triggers PS externalization remained elusive. Here we report that a robust and transient increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ level occurs prior to the exposure of PS on necrotic touch neurons. Inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from the ER, either pharmacologically or genetically, specifically impairs PS exposure on necrotic but not apoptotic cells. On the contrary, inhibiting the reuptake of cytoplasmic Ca2+ into the ER induces ectopic necrosis and PS exposure. Remarkably, PS exposure occurs independently of other necrosis events. Furthermore, unlike in mutants of DEG/ENaC channels, in dominant mutants of deg-3 and trp-4, which encode Ca2+ channels, PS exposure on necrotic neurons does not rely on the ER Ca2+ pool. Our findings indicate that high levels of cytoplasmic Ca2+ are necessary and sufficient for PS exposure. They further reveal two Ca2+-dependent, necrosis-specific pathways that promote PS exposure, a “two-step” pathway initiated by a modest influx of Ca2+ and further boosted by the release of Ca2+ from the ER, and another, ER-independent, pathway. Moreover, we found that ANOH-1, the worm homolog of mammalian phospholipid scramblase TMEM16F, is necessary for efficient PS exposure in thapsgargin-treated worms and trp-4 mutants, like in mec-4 mutants. We propose that both the ER-mediated and ER-independent Ca2+ pathways promote PS externalization through activating ANOH-1.

Klíčová slova:

Apoptosis – Caenorhabditis elegans – Cytoplasm – Fluorescence imaging – Larvae – Motor neurons – Necrosis – Neurons


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