Stigma as a fundamental hindrance to the United States opioid overdose crisis response


Autoři: Alexander C. Tsai aff001;  Mathew V. Kiang aff004;  Michael L. Barnett aff002;  Leo Beletsky aff007;  Katherine M. Keyes aff010;  Emma E. McGinty aff011;  Laramie R. Smith aff009;  Steffanie A. Strathdee aff009;  Sarah E. Wakeman aff002;  Atheendar S. Venkataramani aff013
Působiště autorů: Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff001;  Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff002;  Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda aff003;  Center for Population Health Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America aff004;  Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff005;  Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff006;  Northeastern University School of Law, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff007;  Bouvè College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff008;  Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California, United States of America aff009;  Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States of America aff010;  Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America aff011;  Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff012;  Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff013;  Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff014
Vyšlo v časopise: Stigma as a fundamental hindrance to the United States opioid overdose crisis response. PLoS Med 16(11): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002969
Kategorie: Policy Forum
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002969

Souhrn

Alexander Tsai and co-authors discuss the role of stigma in responses to the US opioid crisis.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Behavioral and social aspects of health – Drug therapy – Law enforcement – Opioids – Physicians – Public and occupational health – Public policy


Zdroje

1. Hedegaard H, Miniño AM, Warner M. Drug overdose deaths in the United States, 1999–2017. NCHS Data Brief No. 329. Hyattsville: US National Center for Health Statistics; 2018. 30500323

2. Alexander MJ, Kiang MV, Barbieri M. Trends in black and white opioid mortality in the United States, 1979–2015. Epidemiology. 2018;29(5):707–15. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000858 29847496

3. Spencer MR, Warner M, Bastian BA, Trinidad JP, Hedegaard H. Drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl, 2011–2016. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2019;68(3):1–19. 31112123

4. Kiang MV, Basu S, Chen J, Alexander MJ. Assessment of changes in the geographical distribution of opioid-related mortality across the United States by opioid type, 1999–2016. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(2):e190040. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0040 30794299

5. Scholl L, Seth P, Kariisa M, Wilson N, Baldwin G. Drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2013–17. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;67(51–52):1419–27. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm675152e1 30605448

6. Tsai AC, Mendenhall E, Trostle JA, Kawachi I. Co-occurring epidemics, syndemics, and population health. Lancet. 2017;389(10072):978–28. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30403-8 28271848

7. Kariisa M, Scholl L, Wilson N, Seth P, Hoots B. Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants with abuse potential—United States, 2003–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(17):388–95. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6817a3 31048676

8. Winkelman TNA, Chang VW, Binswanger IA. Health, polysubstance use, and criminal justice involvement among adults with varying levels of opioid use. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(3):e180558. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0558 30646016

9. Ellis MS, Kasper ZA, Cicero TJ. Twin epidemics: The surging rise of methamphetamine use in chronic opioid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;193:14–20. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.08.029 30326396

10. Gladden RM, O'Donnell J, Mattson CL, Seth P. Changes in opioid-involved overdose deaths by opioid type and presence of benzodiazepines, cocaine, and methamphetamine—25 states, July-December 2017 to January-June 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(34):737–44. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6834a2 31465320

11. Dasgupta N, Beletsky L, Ciccarone D. Opioid crisis: no easy fix to Its social and economic determinants. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(2):182–6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304187 29267060

12. Ruhm CJ. Drivers of the fatal drug epidemic. J Health Econ. 2019;64:25–42. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2019.01.001 30784811

13. King NB, Fraser V, Boikos C, Richardson R, Harper S. Determinants of increased opioid-related mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: a systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e32–e42. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301966 24922138

14. Venkataramani AS, Bair EF, O’Brien RL, Tsai AC. A difference-in-differences analysis of the association between automotive assembly plant closures and opioid overdose mortality in the United States. JAMA Intern Med 2020;180(2):1–9. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5686

15. Baker DW. History of The Joint Commission’s pain standards: lessons for today’s prescription opioid epidemic. JAMA. 2017;317(11):1117–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0935 28241189

16. Ciccarone D. The triple wave epidemic: Supply and demand drivers of the US opioid overdose crisis. Int J Drug Policy. 2019 Sep;71:183–188. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.01.010 30718120

17. Ballantyne JC, Sullivan MD. Intensity of chronic pain—the wrong metric? N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2098–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1507136 26605926

18. Acker CJ. Stigma or legitimation? A historical examination of the social potentials of addiction disease models. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1993;25(3):193–205. doi: 10.1080/02791072.1993.10472271 8258758

19. Gilmore N, Somerville MA. Stigmatization, scapegoating and discrimination in sexually transmitted diseases: overcoming 'them' and 'us'. Soc Sci Med. 1994;39(9):1339–58. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(94)90365-4 7801170

20. Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Annu Rev Sociol. 2001;27(1):363–85. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.363

21. Goffman E. Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1963.

22. Hatzenbuehler ML, Phelan JC, Link BG. Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(5):813–21. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301069 23488505

23. Link BG, Phelan J. Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;35(Extra Issue):80–94. 7560851

24. Corrigan PW, Watson AC. The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2002;9(1):35–53.

25. Crisp AH, Gelder MG, Rix S, Meltzer HI, Rowlands OJ. Stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:4–7. doi: 10.1192/bjp.177.1.4 10945080

26. Janulis P, Ferrari JR, Fowler P. Understanding public stigma toward substance dependence. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2013;43:1065–72. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12070

27. Morone JA. Enemies of the people: the moral dimension to public health. J Health Politics Policy Law. 1997;22(993–1020). doi: 10.1215/03616878-22-4-993 9334916

28. Link BG. Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. Am Sociol Rev. 1987;52(1):96–112. doi: 10.2307/2095395

29. Link BG, Cullen FT, Struening E, Shrout PE. A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: an empirical assessment. Am Sociol Rev. 1989;54(3):400–23. doi: 10.2307/2095613

30. Evans-Lacko S, Brohan E, Mojtabai R, Thornicroft G. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries. Psychol Med. 2012;42(8):1741–52. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711002558 22085422

31. Scambler G, Hopkins A. Being epileptic: coming to terms with stigma. Sociol Health Illn. 1986;8(1):26–43. doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.ep11346455

32. Link BG, Cullen FT, Frank J, Wozniak JF. The social rejection of former mental patients: understanding why labels matter. Am J Sociol. 1987;92(6):1461–500. doi: 10.1086/228672

33. Reskin B. The race discrimination system. Annu Rev Sociol. 2012;38(1):17–35. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145508

34. Corrigan PW, Markowitz FE, Watson AC. Structural levels of mental illness stigma and discrimination. Schizophr Bull. 2004;30(3):481–91. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007096 15631241

35. Jones CP. Levels of racism: a theoretic framework and a gardener’s tale. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(8):1212–5. doi: 10.2105/ajph.90.8.1212 10936998

36. Pescosolido BA, Martin JK, Lang A, Olafsdottir S. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS). Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(3):431–40. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.018 18436358

37. Pitt AL, Humphreys K, Brandeau ML. Modeling health benefits and harms of public policy responses to the US opioid epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(10):1394–400. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304590 30138057

38. Humphreys K, Pollack HA. How should the United States respond to the opioid addiction and overdose epidemic? In: Goldman HH, Frank RG, Morrissey JP, editors. The Palgrave handbook of American mental health policy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan; 2020. p. 259–96. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-11908-9_10

39. Barnett ML, Olenski AR, Jena AB. Opioid-prescribing patterns of emergency physicians and risk of long-term use. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(7):663–73. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1610524 28199807

40. Brat GA, Agniel D, Beam A, Yorkgitis B, Bicket M, Homer M, et al. Postsurgical prescriptions for opioid naive patients and association with overdose and misuse: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2018;360:j5790. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j5790 29343479

41. Schroeder AR, Dehghan M, Newman TB, Bentley JP, Park KT. Association of opioid prescriptions from dental clinicians for US adolescents and young adults with subsequent opioid use and abuse. JAMA Int Med. 2019;179(2):145–52. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5419 30508022

42. Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: a retrospective analysis of the past 50 years. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):821–6. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.366 24871348

43. Nelson LS, Juurlink DN, Perrone J. Addressing the opioid epidemic. JAMA. 2015;314(14):1453–4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.12397 26461995

44. Davis CS, Carr D. Physician continuing education to reduce opioid misuse, abuse, and overdose: Many opportunities, few requirements. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;163:100–7. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.002 27137406

45. Babu KM, Brent J, Juurlink DN. Prevention of opioid overdose. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(23):2246–55. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1807054 31167053

46. Carey CM, Jena AB, Barnett ML. Patterns of potential opioid misuse and subsequent adverse outcomes in Medicare, 2008 to 2012. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168(12):837–45. doi: 10.7326/M17-3065 29800019

47. Guy GP Jr., Zhang K, Bohm MK, Losby J, Lewis B, Young R, et al. Vital Signs: changes in opioid prescribing in the United States, 2006–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(26):697–704. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6626a4 28683056

48. Jones CM, Lurie PG, Throckmorton DC. Effect of US Drug Enforcement Administration's rescheduling of hydrocodone combination analgesic products on opioid analgesic prescribing. JAMA Int Med. 2016;176(3):399–402. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.7799 26809459

49. Bohnert ASB, Guy GP Jr., Losby JL. Opioid prescribing in the United States before and after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2016 opioid guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):367–75. doi: 10.7326/M18-1243 30167651

50. Zhu W, Chernew ME, Sherry TB, Maestas N. Initial opioid prescriptions among U.S. commercially insured patients, 2012–2017. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(11):1043–52. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1807069 30865798

51. Kertesz SG, Gordon AJ. A crisis of opioids and the limits of prescription control: United States. Addiction. 2019;114(1):169–80. doi: 10.1111/add.14394 30039595

52. Chen Q, Larochelle MR, Weaver DT, Lietz AP, Mueller PP, Mercaldo S, et al. Prevention of prescription opioid misuse and projected overdose deaths in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(2):e187621. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.7621 30707224

53. Kampman K, Jarvis M. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) national practice guideline for the use of medications in the treatment of addiction involving opioid use. J Addict Med. 2015;9(5):358–67. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000166 26406300

54. Dugosh K, Abraham A, Seymour B, McLoyd K, Chalk M, Festinger D. A systematic review on the use of psychosocial interventions in conjunction with medications for the treatment of opioid addiction. J Addict Med. 2016;10(2):93–103. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000193 26808307

55. Larochelle MR, Bernson D, Land T, Stopka TJ, Wang N, Xuan Z, et al. Medication for opioid use disorder after nonfatal opioid overdose and association with mortality: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(3):137–45. doi: 10.7326/M17-3107 29913516

56. Frazier W, Cochran G, Lo-Ciganic WH, Gellad WF, Gordon AJ, Chang CH, et al. Medication-assisted treatment and opioid use before and after overdose in Pennsylvania Medicaid. JAMA. 2017;318(8):750–2. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7818 28829862

57. Sordo L, Barrio G, Bravo MJ, Indave BI, Degenhardt L, Wiessing L, et al. Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ. 2017;357:j1550. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1550 28446428

58. Lurie P, Reingold AL, Bowser B, Chen D, Foley J, Guydish J, et al. The public health impact of needle exchange programs in the United States and abroad, vol. 1. San Francisco: Regents of the University of California, 1993. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/11203

59. Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Hopkins W. Risk reduction for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among intravenous drug users. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103(5):755–9. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-103-5-755 4051350

60. Vlahov D, Des Jarlais DC, Goosby E, Hollinger PC, Lurie PG, Shriver MD, et al. Needle exchange programs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection: epidemiology and policy. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(12 Suppl):S70–7. doi: 10.1093/aje/154.12.s70 11744532

61. Marshall BD, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study. Lancet. 2011;377(9775):1429–37. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62353-7 21497898

62. Oviedo-Joekes E, Brissette S, Marsh DC, Lauzon P, Guh D, Anis A, et al. Diacetylmorphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(8):777–86. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810635 19692689

63. Abouk R, Pacula RL, Powell D. Association between state laws facilitating pharmacy distribution of naloxone and risk of fatal overdose. JAMA Int Med. 2019;179(6):805–11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.0272 31058922

64. Walley AY, Xuan Z, Hackman HH, Quinn E, Doe-Simkins M, Sorensen-Alawad A, et al. Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f174. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f174 23372174

65. Irvine MA, Buxton JA, Otterstatter M, Balshaw R, Gustafson R, Tyndall M, et al. Distribution of take-home opioid antagonist kits during a synthetic opioid epidemic in British Columbia, Canada: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(5):e218–e25. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30044-6 29678561

66. Szalavitz M. No one should have to prove their worth to get medical care, regardless of addiction or pain. Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2018;8(3):233–7. doi: 10.1353/nib.2018.0072 30595590

67. Lagisetty PA, Healy N, Garpestad C, Jannausch M, Tipirneni R, Bohnert ASB. Access to primary care clinics for patients with chronic pain receiving opioids. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(7):e196928. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6928 31298712

68. Kennedy-Hendricks A, Busch SH, McGinty EE, Bachhuber MA, Niederdeppe J, Gollust SE, et al. Primary care physicians' perspectives on the prescription opioid epidemic. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;165:61–70. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.05.010 27261154

69. van Boekel LC, Brouwers EP, van Weeghel J, Garretsen HF. Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;131(1–2):23–35. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.018 23490450

70. Allen B, Harocopos A, Chernick R. Substance use stigma, primary care, and the New York State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. Behav Med. Epub 2019 Feb 6. doi: 10.1080/08964289.2018.1555129 30726167

71. Biancarelli DL, Biello KB, Childs E, Drainoni M, Salhaney P, Edeza A, et al. Strategies used by people who inject drugs to avoid stigma in healthcare settings. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;198:80–6. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.037 30884432

72. Dowell D, Haegerich T, Chou R. No shortcuts to safer opioid prescribing. N Engl J Med. 2019. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1904190

73. Kroenke K, Alford DP, Argoff C, Canlas B, Covington E, Frank JW, et al. Challenges with implementing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opioid Guideline: a consensus panel report. Pain Med. 2019;20(4):724–35. doi: 10.1093/pm/pny307 30690556

74. Darnall BD, Juurlink D, Kerns RD, Mackey S, Van Dorsten B, Humphreys K, et al. International stakeholder community of pain experts and leaders call for an urgent action on forced opioid tapering. Pain Med. 2019;20(3):429–33. doi: 10.1093/pm/pny228 30496540

75. Kertesz SG. Turning the tide or riptide? The changing opioid epidemic. Subst Abus. 2017;38(1):3–8. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2016.1261070 27858590

76. Mark TL, Parish W. Opioid medication discontinuation and risk of adverse opioid-related health care events. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019;103(1):58–63. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2019.05.001 31079950

77. Manhapra A, Arias AJ, Ballantyne JC. The conundrum of opioid tapering in long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain: a commentary. Subst Abus. 2018;39(2):152–61. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2017.1381663 28929914

78. Lawrence M. How the CDC guidelines killed my husband. Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2018;8(3):219–22. doi: 10.1353/nib.2018.0069 30595587

79. Latkin CA, Gicquelais RE, Clyde C, Dayton L, Davey-Rothwell M, German D, et al. Stigma and drug use settings as correlates of self-reported, non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs in Baltimore, Maryland. Int J Drug Policy. 2019;68:86–92. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.012 31026734

80. Fiscella K, Wakeman SE, Beletsky L. Buprenorphine deregulation and mainstreaming treatment for opioid use disorder: X the X waiver. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(3):229–30. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3685 30586140

81. Stein BD, Sorbero M, Dick AW, Pacula RL, Burns RM, Gordon AJ. Physician capacity to treat opioid use disorder with buprenorphine-assisted treatment. JAMA. 2016;316(11):1211–2. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.10542 27654608

82. Sigmon SC. The untapped potential of office-based buprenorphine treatment. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(4):395–6. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2421 25671806

83. Thomas CP, Doyle E, Kreiner PW, Jones CM, Dubenitz J, Horan A, et al. Prescribing patterns of buprenorphine waivered physicians. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;181:213–8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.002 29096292

84. Huhn AS, Dunn KE. Why aren't physicians prescribing more buprenorphine? J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;78:1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.005 28554597

85. Haffajee RL, Bohnert ASB, Lagisetty PA. Policy pathways to address provider workforce barriers to buprenorphine treatment. Am J Prev Med. 2018;54(6 Suppl 3):S230–S42. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.12.022 29779547

86. McMurphy S, Shea J, Switzer J, Turner BJ. Clinic-based treatment for opioid dependence: a qualitative inquiry. Am J Health Behav. 2006;30(5):544–54. doi: 10.5555/ajhb.2006.30.5.544 16893317

87. Dineen KK, DuBois JM. Between a rock and a hard place: can physicians prescribe opioids to treat pain adequately while avoiding legal sanction? Am J Law Med. 2016;42(1):7–52. doi: 10.1177/0098858816644712 27263262

88. Madden EF. Intervention stigma: How medication-assisted treatment marginalizes patients and providers. Soc Sci Med. 2019;232:324–31. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.05.027 31125801

89. Green TC, Case P, Fiske H, Baird J, Cabral S, Burstein D, et al. Perpetuating stigma or reducing risk? Perspectives from naloxone consumers and pharmacists on pharmacy-based naloxone in 2 states. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(2S):S19-S27.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2017.01.013 28214219

90. Binswanger IA, Koester S, Mueller SR, Gardner EM, Goddard K, Glanz JM. Overdose education and naloxone for patients prescribed opioids in primary care: a qualitative study of primary care staff. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(12):1837–44. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3394-3 26055224

91. Green TC, Bowman SE, Zaller ND, Ray M, Case P, Heimer R. Barriers to medical provider support for prescription naloxone as overdose antidote for lay responders. Subst Use Misuse. 2013;48(7):558–67. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.787099 23647168

92. Bazazi AR, Zaller ND, Fu JJ, Rich JD. Preventing opiate overdose deaths: examining objections to take-home naloxone. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010;21(4):1108–13. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2010.0935 21099064

93. Okoro ON, Bastianelli KM, Wen YF, Bilden EF, Konowalchuk BK, Schneiderhan ME. Awareness of state legislation on naloxone accessibility associated with willingness to prescribe naloxone. Subst Abus. 2018;39(1):14–20. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2017.1356787 28727957

94. Davis C, Carr D. State legal innovations to encourage naloxone dispensing. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(2S):S180–S4. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2016.11.007 28073688

95. Davis CS, Carr D. Legal changes to increase access to naloxone for opioid overdose reversal in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;157:112–20. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.10.013 26507172

96. Koester S, Mueller SR, Raville L, Langegger S, Binswanger IA. Why are some people who have received overdose education and naloxone reticent to call Emergency Medical Services in the event of overdose? Int J Drug Policy. 2017;48:115–24. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.06.008 28734745

97. Beletsky L. America’s favorite antidote: drug-induced homicide in the age of the overdose crisis. Utah Law Rev. 2019;2019(4):833–90. https://dc.law.utah.edu/ulr/vol2019/iss4/4/

98. Mark TL, Lubran R, McCance-Katz EF, Chalk M, Richardson J. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015;55:1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2015.04.009 25921475

99. Andrews CM, Abraham AJ, Grogan CM, Westlake MA, Pollack HA, Friedmann PD. Impact of Medicaid restrictions on availability of buprenorphine in addiction treatment programs. Am J Public Health. 2019;109(3):434–6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304856 30676789

100. Clark RE, Baxter JD. Responses of state Medicaid programs to buprenorphine diversion: doing more harm than good? JAMA Int Med. 2013;173(17):1571–2. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9059 23877740

101. Kermack A, Flannery M, Tofighi B, McNeely J, Lee JD. Buprenorphine prescribing practice trends and attitudes among New York providers. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;74:1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.10.005 28132694

102. Burns RM, Pacula RL, Bauhoff S, Gordon AJ, Hendrikson H, Leslie DL, et al. Policies related to opioid agonist therapy for opioid use disorders: The evolution of state policies from 2004 to 2013. Subst Abus. 2016;37(1):63–9. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2015.1080208 26566761

103. Beetham T, Saloner B, Wakeman SE, Gaye M, Barnett ML. Access to office-based buprenorphine treatment in areas with high rates of opioid-related mortality: an audit study. Ann Intern Med. 2019;171(1):1–9. doi: 10.7326/M18-3457 31158849

104. Parran TV, Muller JZ, Chernyak E, Adelman C, Delos Reyes CM, Rowland D, et al. Access to and payment for office-based buprenorphine treatment in Ohio. Subst Abuse. 2017;11:1178221817699247. doi: 10.1177/1178221817699247 28642642

105. Rees J, Garcia G. Clinic payment options as a barrier to accessing medication-assisted treatment for opioid use in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Addict Disord Their Treat. 2019;18(4):246–248 doi: 10.1097/ADT.0000000000000175

106. Meinhofer A, Witman AE. The role of health insurance on treatment for opioid use disorders: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion. J Health Econ. 2018;60:177–97. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2018.06.004 29990675

107. Abraham AJ, Andrews CM, Grogan CM, D'Aunno T, Humphreys KN, Pollack HA, et al. The Affordable Care Act transformation of substance use disorder treatment. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(1):31–2. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303558 27925819

108. Wen LS, Behrle EB, Tsai AC. Evaluating the impact of Affordable Care Act repeal on America's opioid epidemic. PLoS Med. 2017;14(8):e1002380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002380 28850576

109. Bernstein SE, Bennett D. Zoned Out: "NIMBYism", addiction services and municipal governance in British Columbia. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24(6):e61–5. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.04.001 23680227

110. Strike C, Miskovic M. Zoning out methadone and rising opioid-related deaths in Ontario: Reforms and municipal government actions. Can J Public Health. 2017;108(2):e205–e7. doi: 10.17269/cjph.108.5858 28621658

111. Amiri S, Lutz R, Socias ME, McDonell MG, Roll JM, Amram O. Increased distance was associated with lower daily attendance to an opioid treatment program in Spokane County Washington. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018;93:26–30. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2018.07.006 30126538

112. Joudrey PJ, Edelman EJ, Wang EA. Drive times to opioid treatment programs in urban and rural counties in 5 US states. JAMA. 2019;322(13):1310–2. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.12562 31573628

113. Wakeman SE, Ladin K, Brennan T, Chung RT. Opioid use disorder, stigma, and transplantation: a call to action. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(3):188–9. doi: 10.7326/M18-1099 29987319

114. Koch M, Banys P. Liver transplantation and opioid dependence. JAMA. 2001;285(8):1056–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.8.1056 11209177

115. Fleming JN, Lai JC, Te HS, Said A, Spengler EK, Rogal SS. Opioid and opioid substitution therapy in liver transplant candidates: A survey of center policies and practices. Clin Transplant. 2017;31(12). doi: 10.1111/ctr.13119 28941292

116. Wakeman SE, Rich JD. Barriers to post-acute care for patients on opioid agonist therapy; an example of systematic stigmatization of addiction. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(1):17–9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3799-7 27393486

117. Suzuki J, Johnson J, Montgomery M, Hayden M, Price C. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy among people who inject drugs: a review of the literature. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(9):ofy194. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofy194 30211247

118. Rapoport AB, Fischer LS, Santibanez S, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Rowley CF. Infectious diseases physicians' perspectives regarding injection drug use and related infections, United States, 2017. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(7):ofy132. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofy132 30018999

119. Beletsky L, Wakeman SE, Fiscella K. Practicing what we preach—ending physician health program bans on opioid-agonist therapy. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(9):796–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1907875 31461593

120. Kelly JF, Westerhoff CM. Does it matter how we refer to individuals with substance-related conditions? A randomized study of two commonly used terms. Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21(3):202–7. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.10.010 20005692

121. Friedmann PD, Schwartz RP. Just call it “treatment”. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2012;7(1):10. doi: 10.1186/1940-0640-7-10 23186149

122. Kennedy-Hendricks A, Levin J, Stone E, McGinty EE, Gollust SE, Barry CL. News media reporting on medication treatment for opioid use disorder amid the opioid epidemic. Health Aff (Millwood). 2019;38(4):643–51. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05075 30933576

123. McGinty EE, Stone EM, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Barry CL. Stigmatizing language in news media coverage of the opioid epidemic: Implications for public health. Prev Med. 2019;124:110–4. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.03.018 31122614

124. McGinty EE, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Baller J, Niederdeppe J, Gollust S, Barry CL. Criminal activity or treatable health condition? News media framing of opioid analgesic abuse in the United States, 1998–2012. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67(4):405–11. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201500065 26620290

125. Netherland J, Hansen HB. The war on drugs that wasn't: wasted whiteness, “dirty doctors," and race in media coverage of prescription opioid misuse. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):664–86. doi: 10.1007/s11013-016-9496-5 27272904

126. Kennedy-Hendricks A, Barry CL, Gollust SE, Ensminger ME, Chisolm MS, McGinty EE. Social stigma toward persons with prescription opioid use disorder: associations with public support for punitive and public health-oriented policies. Psychiatr Serv. 2017;68(5):462–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201600056 28045350

127. McGinty EE, Goldman HH, Pescosolido B, Barry CL. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Soc Sci Med. 2015;126:73–85. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.010 25528557

128. Barry CL, Sherman SG, McGinty EE. Language matters in combatting the opioid epidemic: safe consumption sites versus overdose prevention sites. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(9):1157–9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304588 30088990

129. Bachhuber MA, McGinty EE, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Niederdeppe J, Barry CL. Messaging to increase public support for naloxone distribution policies in the United States: results from a randomized survey experiment. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0130050. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130050 26132859

130. McGinty EE, Barry CL, Stone EM, Niederdeppe J, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Linden S, et al. Public support for safe consumption sites and syringe services programs to combat the opioid epidemic. Prev Med. 2018;111:73–7. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.02.026 29481827

131. Kilmer B, Smart R, Taylor J, Caulkins JP. Prescribing diamorphine in the United States: Insights from a nationally representative survey. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;196:62–5. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.12.007 30708289

132. Crapanzano KA, Hammarlund R, Ahmad B, Hunsinger N, Kullar R. The association between perceived stigma and substance use disorder treatment outcomes: a review. Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2019;10:1–12. doi: 10.2147/SAR.S183252 30643480

133. Clement S, Schauman O, Graham T, Maggioni F, Evans-Lacko S, Bezborodovs N, et al. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychol Med. 2015;45(1):11–27. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714000129 24569086

134. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Cunningham CO, Copenhaver MM. Intersectionality of internalized HIV stigma and internalized substance use stigma: Implications for depressive symptoms. J Health Psychol. 2015;20(8):1083–9. doi: 10.1177/1359105313507964 24170015

135. Ahern J, Stuber J, Galea S. Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;88(2–3):188–96. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.10.014 17118578

136. Latkin C, Davey-Rothwell M, Yang JY, Crawford N. The relationship between drug user stigma and depression among inner-city drug users in Baltimore, MD. J Urban Health. 2013;90(1):147–56. doi: 10.1007/s11524-012-9753-z 22918839

137. Kulesza M, Watkins KE, Ober AJ, Osilla KC, Ewing B. Internalized stigma as an independent risk factor for substance use problems among primary care patients: Rationale and preliminary support. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;180:52–5. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.002 28869858

138. Cunningham JA, Sobell LC, Sobell MB, Agrawal S, Toneatto T. Barriers to treatment: why alcohol and drug abusers delay or never seek treatment. Addict Behav. 1993;18(3):347–53. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(93)90036-9 8393611

139. Earnshaw V, Smith L, Copenhaver M. Drug addiction stigma in the context of methadone maintenance therapy: an investigation into understudied sources of stigma. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2013;11(1):110–22. doi: 10.1007/s11469-012-9402-5 23956702

140. Keyes KM, Hatzenbuehler ML, McLaughlin KA, Link B, Olfson M, Grant BF, et al. Stigma and treatment for alcohol disorders in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(12):1364–72. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq304 21044992

141. Brener L, von Hippel W, von Hippel C, Resnick I, Treloar C. Perceptions of discriminatory treatment by staff as predictors of drug treatment completion: utility of a mixed methods approach. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010;29(5):491–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00173.x 20887572

142. Paquette CE, Syvertsen JL, Pollini RA. Stigma at every turn: Health services experiences among people who inject drugs. Int J Drug Policy. 2018;57:104–10. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.04.004 29715589

143. Bearnot B, Fine DR, Rigotti NA, Baggett TP. Access to treatment for drug use disorders at US health centers: a national study. J Gen Intern Med. 2019Dec;34(12):2723–2725 doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05043-1 31090029

144. Faulkner KK, Faulkner TA. Managing multiple relationships in rural communities: neutrality and boundary violations. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 1997;4(3):225–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1997.tb00111.x

145. Montalvo C, Stankiewicz B, Brochier A, Henderson DC, Borba CPC. Long-term retention in an outpatient behavioral health clinic with buprenorphine. Am J Addict. 2019;28(5):339–46. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12896 31066985

146. Weinstein ZM, Kim HW, Cheng DM, Quinn E, Hui D, Labelle CT, et al. Long-term retention in office based opioid treatment with buprenorphine. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;74:65–70. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.12.010 28132702

147. Manhapra A, Agbese E, Leslie DL, Rosenheck RA. Three-year retention in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder among privately insured adults. Psychiatr Serv. 2018;69(7):768–76. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201700363 29656707

148. Katz IT, Ryu AE, Onuegbu AG, Psaros C, Weiser SD, Bangsberg DR, et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16(Suppl 2):18640. doi: 10.7448/IAS.16.3.18640 24242258

149. Siedner MJ, Musinguzi N, Tsai AC, Muzoora C, Kembabazi A, Weiser SD, et al. Treatment as long-term prevention: sustained reduction in HIV sexual transmission risk with use of antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. AIDS. 2014;28(2):267–71. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000136 24361683

150. Radcliffe P, Stevens A. Are drug treatment services only for 'thieving junkie scumbags'? Drug users and the management of stigmatised identities. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(7):1065–73. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.004 18640760

151. Gryczynski J, Jaffe JH, Schwartz RP, Dusek KA, Gugsa N, Monroe CL, et al. Patient perspectives on choosing buprenorphine over methadone in an urban, equal-access system. Am J Addict. 2013;22(3):285–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2012.12004.x 23617873

152. Dole VP, Nyswander ME. Methadone maintenance: a theoretical perspective. In: Lettieri DJ, Sayers M, Pearson HW, editors. Theories on drug abuse: selected contemporary perspectives. Washington, (DC): US Government Printing Office; 1980. NIDA Research Monograph 30. https://archives.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/monograph30.pdf 6779187

153. Harris J, McElrath K. Methadone as social control: institutionalized stigma and the prospect of recovery. Qual Health Res. 2012;22(6):810–24. doi: 10.1177/1049732311432718 22232295

154. McElrath K. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction in the United States: critique and commentary. Subst Use Misuse. 2018;53(2):334–43. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1342662 28862903

155. Yarborough BJ, Stumbo SP, McCarty D, Mertens J, Weisner C, Green CA. Methadone, buprenorphine and preferences for opioid agonist treatment: A qualitative analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;160:112–8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.12.031 26796596

156. Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, Elmore JG, et al. Release from prison—a high risk of death for former inmates New Engl J Med. 2007;356(2):157–65. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa064115 17215533

157. Merrall EL, Kariminia A, Binswanger IA, Hobbs MS, Farrell M, Marsden J, et al. Meta-analysis of drug-related deaths soon after release from prison. Addiction. 2010;105(9):1545–54. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02990.x 20579009

158. Binswanger IA, Blatchford PJ, Mueller SR, Stern MF. Mortality after prison release: opioid overdose and other causes of death, risk factors, and time trends from 1999 to 2009. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:592–600. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-9-201311050-00005 24189594

159. Nunn A, Zaller N, Dickman S, Trimbur C, Nijhawan A, Rich JD. Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing and referral practices in US prison systems: results from a nationwide survey. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;105(1–2):83–8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.015 19625142

160. Aronowitz SV, Laurent J. Screaming behind a door: the experiences of individuals incarcerated without medication-assisted treatment. J Correct Health Care. 2016;22(2):98–108. doi: 10.1177/1078345816634079 26984133

161. Friedmann PD, Hoskinson R, Gordon M, Schwartz R, Kinlock T, Knight K, et al. Medication-assisted treatment in criminal justice agencies affiliated with the criminal justice-drug abuse treatment studies (CJ-DATS): availability, barriers, and intentions. Subst Abus. 2012;33(1):9–18. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2011.611460 22263709

162. McMillan GP, Lapham SC. Staff perspectives on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a large southwestern jail. Addict Res Theory. 2005;13(1):53–63. doi: 10.1080/16066350512331328159

163. Gordon MS, Kinlock TW, Schwartz RP, O'Grady KE. A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: findings at 6 months post-release. Addiction. 2008;103(8):1333–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.002238.x 18855822

164. Green TC, Clarke J, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Marshall BDL, Alexander-Scott N, Boss R, et al. Postincarceration fatal overdoses after implementing medications for addiction treatment in a statewide correctional system. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(4):405–7. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4614 29450443

165. Marsden J, Stillwell G, Jones H, Cooper A, Eastwood B, Farrell M, et al. Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk of death after release? A national prospective observational study in England. Addiction. 2017;112(8):1408–18. doi: 10.1111/add.13779 28160345

166. Degenhardt L, Larney S, Kimber J, Gisev N, Farrell M, Dobbins T, et al. The impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality post-release from prison: retrospective data linkage study. Addiction. 2014;109(8):1306–17. doi: 10.1111/add.12536 24612249

167. Todd KH, Deaton C, D'Adamo AP, Goe L. Ethnicity and analgesic practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(1):11–6. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(00)70099-0 10613935

168. Gaither JR, Gordon K, Crystal S, Edelman EJ, Kerns RD, Justice AC, et al. Racial disparities in discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy following illicit drug use among black and white patients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;192:371–6. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.05.033 30122319

169. Sklansky DA. Cocaine, race, and equal protection. Stanford Law Rev. 1995;47(6):1283–322. https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/facpubs/1061/

170. McDonald DC, Carlson KE. Sentencing in the federal courts: does race matter? The transition to sentencing guidelines, 1986–90. Washington, (DC): US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1993. doi: https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/sfc-drmtsg8690.pdf

171. Hansen H, Netherland J. Is the prescription opioid epidemic a white problem? Am J Public Health. 2016;106(12):2127–9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303483 27831792

172. Netherland J, Hansen H. White opioids: Pharmaceutical race and the war on drugs that wasn't. Biosocieties. 2017;12(2):217–38. doi: 10.1057/biosoc.2015.46 28690668

173. Buonora M, Perez HR, Heo M, Cunningham CO, Starrels JL. Race and gender are associated with opioid dose reduction among patients on chronic opioid therapy. Pain Med. Epub 2018 Jul 18. doi: 10.1093/pm/pny137 30032197

174. Lagisetty PA, Ross R, Bohnert A, Clay M, Maust DT. Buprenorphine treatment divide by race/ethnicity and payment. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(9):979–81. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0876 31066881

175. Hansen HB, Siegel CE, Case BG, Bertollo DN, DiRocco D, Galanter M. Variation in use of buprenorphine and methadone treatment by racial, ethnic, and income characteristics of residential social areas in New York City. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2013;40(3):367–77. doi: 10.1007/s11414-013-9341-3 23702611

176. Davis CS, Carr DH. Legal and policy changes urgently needed to increase access to opioid agonist therapy in the United States. Int J Drug Policy. 2019;73:42–8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.07.006 31336293

177. Beletsky L, Rich JD, Walley AY. Prevention of fatal opioid overdose. JAMA. 2012;308(18):1863–4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14205 23150005

178. Fiscella K, Beletsky L, Wakeman SE. The inmate exception and reform of correctional health care. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(3):384–5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303626 28177816

179. Arredondo J, Beletsky L, Baker P, Abramovitz D, Artamonova I, Clairgue E, et al. Interactive versus video-based training of police to communicate syringe legality to people who inject drugs: the SHIELD Study, Mexico, 2015–2016. Am J Public Health. 2019 Jun;109(6):921–926. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305030 30998406

180. Thornicroft G, Mehta N, Clement S, Evans-Lacko S, Doherty M, Rose D, et al. Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. Lancet. 2016;387(10023):1123–32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00298-6 26410341

181. Association of American Medical Colleges. How academic medicine is addressing the opioid epidemic. Washington (DC): Association of American Medical Colleges; 2019. https://www.aamc.org/system/files/d/1/63-opioids_-_how_academic_medicine_is_addressing_the_opioid_epidemic_-_20190222.pdf

182. Sharfstein JM, Olsen Y. Making amends for the opioid epidemic. JAMA. 2019;321(15):1446–7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.3505 30990541

183. Wakeman SE, Barnett ML. Primary care and the opioid-overdose crisis—buprenorphine myths and realities. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(1):1–4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1802741 29972748

184. Pescosolido BA, Martin JK, Long JS, Medina TR, Phelan JC, Link BG. "A disease like any other"? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(11):1321–30. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09121743 20843872

185. Schnittker J. An uncertain revolution: why the rise of a genetic model of mental illness has not increased tolerance. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(9):1370–81. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.007 18703264

186. Broockman D, Kalla J. Durably reducing transphobia: A field experiment on door-to-door canvassing. Science. 2016;352(6282):220–4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9713 27124458

187. Paluck EL, Green SA, Green DP. The contact hypothesis re-evaluated. Behav Public Policy. 2019;3(2):129–158. doi: 10.1017/bpp.2018.25

188. Fung KM, Tsang HW, Cheung WM. Randomized controlled trial of the self-stigma reduction program among individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2011;189(2):208–14. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.02.013 21377738

189. Luoma JB, Kohlenberg BS, Hayes SC, Fletcher L. Slow and steady wins the race: a randomized clinical trial of acceptance and commitment therapy targeting shame in substance use disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(1):43–53. doi: 10.1037/a0026070 22040285

190. Associated Press Editors, editor. The Associated Press stylebook and briefing on media law 2017. New York: Basic Books; 2017.

191. Skehan J, Greenhalgh S, Hazell T, Pirkis J. Reach, awareness and uptake of media guidelines for reporting suicide and mental illness: an Australian perspective. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2006;8(4):29–35. doi: 10.1080/14623730.2006.9721749

192. Barry CL, McGinty EE, Pescosolido BA, Goldman HH. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(10):1269–72. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201400140 25270497

193. McGinty E, Pescosolido B, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Barry CL. Communication strategies to counter stigma and improve mental illness and substance use disorder policy. Psychiatr Serv. 2018;69(2):136–46. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201700076 28967320

194. Saitz R. Things that work, things that don't work, and things that matter—including words. J Addict Med. 2015;9(6):429–30. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000160 26517322

195. Broyles LM, Binswanger IA, Jenkins JA, Finnell DS, Faseru B, Cavaiola A, et al. Confronting inadvertent stigma and pejorative language in addiction scholarship: a recognition and response. Subst Abus. 2014;35(3):217–21. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2014.930372 24911031

196. Saitz R. International statement recommending against the use of terminology that can stigmatize people. J Addict Med. 2016;10(1):1–2. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000178 26588846

197. Wahl OF. Media madness: public images of mental illness. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; 1995.

198. Washington EL. Female socialization: how daughters affect their legislator fathers. Am Econ Rev. 2008;98(1):311–32. doi: 10.1257/aer.98.1.311

199. Chattopadhyay R, Duflo E. Women as policy makers: evidence from a randomized policy experiment in India. Econometrica. 2004;72(5):1409–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0262.2004.00539.x

200. Moore S, Wolfe SM, Lindes D, Douglas CE. Epidemiology of failed tobacco control legislation. JAMA. 1994;272(15):1171–5. 10.1001/jama.1994.03520150039034 7933346

Štítky
Interní lékařství

Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS Medicine


2019 Číslo 11

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Kurzy

Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Farmaceutická péče o pacienta s inhalační terapií
nový kurz
Autoři: Mgr. Ondřej Šimandl

Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Léčba akutní pooperační bolesti
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Jiří Málek, CSc.

Nové antipsychotikum kariprazin v léčbě schizofrenie
Autoři: prof. MUDr. Cyril Höschl, DrSc., FRCPsych.

Všechny kurzy
Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se