Psychological and pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: Systematic review and component network meta-analysis
Peter A. Coventry aff001; Nick Meader aff001; Hollie Melton aff001; Melanie Temple aff003; Holly Dale aff004; Kath Wright aff001; Marylène Cloitre aff005; Thanos Karatzias aff007; Jonathan Bisson aff008; Neil P. Roberts aff008; Jennifer V. E. Brown aff001; Corrado Barbui aff010; Rachel Churchill aff001; Karina Lovell aff011; Dean McMillan aff002; Simon Gilbody aff002
Působiště autorů: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, United Kingdom aff001; Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom aff002; Schoen Clinic, York, United Kingdom aff003; School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom aff004; National Center for PTSD Dissemination and Training Division, VA Palo Alto Health Care, Menlo Park, California, United States of America aff005; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America aff006; Edinburgh Napier University, School of Health & Social Care, Edinburgh, United Kingdom aff007; Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom aff008; Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Cardiff, United Kingdom aff009; Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy aff010; Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom aff011; Hull York Medical School, University of York, York, United Kingdom aff012
Vyšlo v časopise: Psychological and pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: Systematic review and component network meta-analysis. PLoS Med 17(8): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003262
Kategorie: Research Article
Complex traumatic events associated with armed conflict, forcible displacement, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence are increasingly prevalent. People exposed to complex traumatic events are at risk of not only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also other mental health comorbidities. Whereas evidence-based psychological and pharmacological treatments are effective for single-event PTSD, it is not known if people who have experienced complex traumatic events can benefit and tolerate these commonly available treatments. Furthermore, it is not known which components of psychological interventions are most effective for managing PTSD in this population. We performed a systematic review and component network meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological interventions for managing mental health problems in people exposed to complex traumatic events.
Methods and findings
We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, PsycINFO, and Science Citation Index for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of psychological and pharmacological treatments for PTSD symptoms in people exposed to complex traumatic events, published up to 25 October 2019. We adopted a nondiagnostic approach and included studies of adults who have experienced complex trauma. Complex-trauma subgroups included veterans; childhood sexual abuse; war-affected; refugees; and domestic violence. The primary outcome was reduction in PTSD symptoms. Secondary outcomes were depressive and anxiety symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and positive and negative affect. We included 116 studies, of which 50 were conducted in hospital settings, 24 were delivered in community settings, seven were delivered in military clinics for veterans or active military personnel, five were conducted in refugee camps, four used remote delivery via web-based or telephone platforms, four were conducted in specialist trauma clinics, two were delivered in home settings, and two were delivered in primary care clinics; clinical setting was not reported in 17 studies. Ninety-four RCTs, for a total of 6,158 participants, were included in meta-analyses across the primary and secondary outcomes; 18 RCTs for a total of 933 participants were included in the component network meta-analysis. The mean age of participants in the included RCTs was 42.6 ± 9.3 years, and 42% were male. Nine non-RCTs were included. The mean age of participants in the non-RCTs was 40.6 ± 9.4 years, and 47% were male. The average length of follow-up across all included studies at posttreatment for the primary outcome was 11.5 weeks. The pairwise meta-analysis showed that psychological interventions reduce PTSD symptoms more than inactive control (k = 46; n = 3,389; standardised mean difference [SMD] = −0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.02 to −0.63) and active control (k-9; n = 662; SMD = −0.35, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.14) at posttreatment and also compared with inactive control at 6-month follow-up (k = 10; n = 738; SMD = −0.45, 95% CI −0.82 to −0.08). Psychological interventions reduced depressive symptoms (k = 31; n = 2,075; SMD = −0.87, 95% CI −1.11 to −0.63; I2 = 82.7%, p = 0.000) and anxiety (k = 15; n = 1,395; SMD = −1.03, 95% CI −1.44 to −0.61; p = 0.000) at posttreatment compared with inactive control. Sleep quality was significantly improved at posttreatment by psychological interventions compared with inactive control (k = 3; n = 111; SMD = −1.00, 95% CI −1.49 to −0.51; p = 0.245). There were no significant differences between psychological interventions and inactive control group at posttreatment for quality of life (k = 6; n = 401; SMD = 0.33, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.66; p = 0.021). Antipsychotic medicine (k = 5; n = 364; SMD = –0.45; –0.85 to –0.05; p = 0.085) and prazosin (k = 3; n = 110; SMD = −0.52; −1.03 to −0.02; p = 0.182) were effective in reducing PTSD symptoms. Phase-based psychological interventions that included skills-based strategies along with trauma-focused strategies were the most promising interventions for emotional dysregulation and interpersonal problems. Compared with pharmacological interventions, we observed that psychological interventions were associated with greater reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms and improved sleep quality. Sensitivity analysis showed that psychological interventions were acceptable with lower dropout, even in studies rated at low risk of attrition bias. Trauma-focused psychological interventions were superior to non-trauma-focused interventions across trauma subgroups for PTSD symptoms, but effects among veterans and war-affected populations were significantly reduced. The network meta-analysis showed that multicomponent interventions that included cognitive restructuring and imaginal exposure were the most effective for reducing PTSD symptoms (k = 17; n = 1,077; mean difference = −37.95, 95% CI −60.84 to −15.16). Our use of a non-diagnostic inclusion strategy may have overlooked certain complex-trauma populations with severe and enduring mental health comorbidities. Additionally, the relative contribution of skills-based intervention components was not feasibly evaluated in the network meta-analysis.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we observed that trauma-focused psychological interventions are effective for managing mental health problems and comorbidities in people exposed to complex trauma. Multicomponent interventions, which can include phase-based approaches, were the most effective treatment package for managing PTSD in complex trauma. Establishing optimal ways to deliver multicomponent psychological interventions for people exposed to complex traumatic events is a research and clinical priority.
Clinical psychology – Child abuse – Medical risk factors – Mental health and psychiatry – Mental health therapies – Metaanalysis – Post-traumatic stress disorder – Psychotherapy
1. Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Benjet C, Bromet EJ, Cardoso G, et al. Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2017;8(sup5):1353383. Epub 2017/10/28. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1353383 29075426; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5632781.
2. Stevelink SAM, Jones M, Hull L, Pernet D, MacCrimmon S, Goodwin L, et al. Mental health outcomes at the end of the British involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts: a cohort study. Br J Psychiatry. 2018;213(6):690–7. Epub 2018/10/09. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.175 30295216; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6429255.
3. Iversen AC, Fear NT, Simonoff E, Hull L, Horn O, Greenberg N, et al. Influence of childhood adversity on health among male UK military personnel. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:506–11. Epub 2007/12/07. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.039818 18055954.
4. Steel Z, Chey T, Silove D, Marnane C, Bryant RA, van Ommeren M. Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302(5):537–49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1132 19654388
5. UNHCR. Global Trends. Forced Displacement in 2018. Geneva: 2019. Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2018/
6. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 26. Gaskell and the British Psychological Society; 2005.
7. Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Andrew M, Cooper R, Lewis C. Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013;12:CD003388. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub4 24338345.
8. Ostacher MJ, Cifu AS. Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. JAMA. 2019;321(2):200–1. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.19290 30556838
9. Stein DJ, Ipser JC, Seedat S, Sager C, Amos T. Pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006;(1). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002795.pub2 CD002795. 16437445
10. Hepgul N, King S, Amarasinghe M, Breen G, Grant N, Grey N, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients assessed within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service: results from a naturalistic cohort study (Predicting Outcome Following Psychological Therapy; PROMPT). BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0736-6 26920578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4769576.
11. Briere J, Kaltman S, Green BL. Accumulated childhood trauma and symptom complexity. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21(2):223–6. Epub 2008/04/12. doi: 10.1002/jts.20317 18404627.
12. Cloitre M, Stolbach BC, Herman JL, van der Kolk B, Pynoos R, Wang J, et al. A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. J Trauma Stress. 2009;22(5):399–408. doi: 10.1002/jts.20444 19795402.
13. Goddard E, Wingrove J, Moran P. The impact of comorbid personality difficulties on response to IAPT treatment for depression and anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2015;73:1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.07.006 26226089.
14. Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Fyvie C, Hyland P, Efthymiadou E, Wilson D, et al. Evidence of distinct profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). J Affect Disord. 2017;207:181–7. Epub 2016/10/11. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.032 27723542.
15. Karatzias T, Murphy P, Cloitre M, Bisson J, Roberts N, Shevlin M, et al. Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine. 2019;49(11):1761–75. Epub 2019/03/12. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719000436 30857567
16. Hutton B, Salanti G, Caldwell DM, Chaimani A, Schmid CH, Cameron C, et al. The PRISMA Extension Statement for Reporting of Systematic Reviews Incorporating Network Meta-analyses of Health Care Interventions: Checklist and Explanations. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2015;162(11):777–84. doi: 10.7326/M14-2385 26030634
17. Herman JL. Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1992;5(3):377–91. doi: 10.1002/jts.2490050305
18. Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Jüni P, Moher D, Oxman AD, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;343:d5928. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d5928 22008217
19. Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Atkinson LZ, Leucht S, Ruhe HG, Turner EH, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants in the acute treatment of major depression: protocol for a network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(7):e010919. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010919 27401359
20. NICE. Methods for the Development of NICE Public Health Guidance. 3rd ed. Appendix F: quality appraisal checklist–quantitative intervention studies. London: 2012.
21. Jackson R, Ameratunga S, Broad J, Connor J, Lethaby A, Robb G, et al. The GATE frame: critical appraisal with pictures. Evid Based Nurs. 2006;9(3):68–71. Epub 2006/07/26. doi: 10.1136/ebn.9.3.68 16862733.
22. StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station: StataCorp; 2017.
23. Lipsey MW, Wilson D. Practical Meta-Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publictions; 2001.
24. Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0. Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.
25. Welton NJ, Caldwell DM, Adamopoulos E, Vedhara K. Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of complex interventions: psychological interventions in coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(9):1158–65. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp014 19258485.
26. Freeman SC, Scott NW, Powell R, Johnston M, Sutton AJ, Cooper NJ. Component network meta-analysis identifies the most effective components of psychological preparation for adults undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2018;98:105–16. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.02.012 29476923
27. Dias S, Sutton AJ, Ades AE, Welton NJ. Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making 2:A Generalized Linear Modeling Framework for Pairwise and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medical Decision Making. 2013;33(5):607–17. doi: 10.1177/0272989X12458724 23104435.
28. Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BP, Van Der Linde A. Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology). 2002;64(4):583–639. doi: 10.1111/1467-9868.00353
29. Adenauer H, Catani C, Gola H, Keil J, Ruf M, Schauer M, et al. Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-127 22182346 stimuli—evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:127.
30. Azad Marzabadi E, Hashemi Zadeh SM. The effectiveness of mindfulness training in improving the quality of life of the war victims with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Iran. 2014;9(4):228–36. 25792991.
31. Bahadir-Yilmaz E, Oz F. The Effectiveness of Empowerment Program on Increasing Self-Esteem, Learned Resourcefulness, and Coping Ways in Women Exposed to Domestic Violence. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2018;39(2):135–41. doi: 10.1080/01612840.2017.1368750 WOS:000424943000005. 29028364
32. Bartzokis G, Lu PH, Turner J, Mintz J, Saunders CS. Adjunctive risperidone in the treatment of chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(5):474–9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.039 15737661.
33. Beidel DC, Frueh BC, Uhde TW, Wong N, Mentrikoski JM. Multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2011;25(2):224–31. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.09.006 20951543; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS238163.
34. Bremner JD, Mishra S, Campanella C, Shah M, Kasher N, Evans S, et al. A pilot study of the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders of combat in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2017;8:157. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00157 2017-38563-001. 28890702
35. Celik C, Ozdemir B, Ozmenler KN, Yelboga Z, Balikci A, Oznur T, et al. Efficacy of Paroxetine and Amitriptyline in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Open-label Comparative Study. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2011;21(3):179–85. doi: 10.5455/bcp.20110627111141
36. Chard KM. An evaluation of cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(5):965–71. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.965 16287396.
37. Chung MY, Min KH, Jun YJ, Kim SS, Kim WC, Jun EM. Efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine and sertraline in Korean veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized open label trial. Hum. 2004;19(7):489–94. doi: 10.1002/hup.615 15378676.
38. Classen C, Koopman C, Nevillmanning K, Spiegel D. A Preliminary Report Comparing Trauma-Focused and Present-Focused Group Therapy Against a Wait-Listed Condition Among Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors with PTSD. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. 2001;4(2):265–88. doi: 10.1300/J146v04n02_12
39. Cook JM, Harb GC, Gehrman PR, Cary MS, Gamble GM, Forbes D, et al. Imagery rehearsal for posttraumatic nightmares: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of traumatic stress. 2010;23(5):553–63. doi: 10.1002/jts.20569 20839311
40. Davis LL, Jewell ME, Ambrose S, Farley J, English B, Bartolucci A, et al. A Placebo-Controlled Study of Nefazodone for the Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2004;24(3). doi: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000125685.82219.1a 15118483
41. Davis LL, Davidson JR, Ward LC, Bartolucci A, Bowden CL, Petty F. Divalproex in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a veteran population. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(1):84–8. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e318160f83b 18204347.
42. Devilly GJ, Spence SH, Rapee RM. Statistical and reliable change with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Treating trauma within a veteran population. Behavior Therapy. 1998;29(3):435–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(98)80042-7.
43. Foa EB, McLean CP, Zang Y, Rosenfield D, Yadin E, Yarvis JS, et al. Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;319(4):354–64. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.21242 29362795.
44. Ford JD, Grasso DJ, Greene CA, Slivinsky M, DeViva JC. Randomized clinical trial pilot study of prolonged exposure versus present centred affect regulation therapy for PTSD and anger problems with male military combat veterans. Clin. 2018;25(5):641–9. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2194 29687524.
45. Friedman MJ, Marmar CR, Baker DG, Sikes CR, Farfel GM. Randomized, double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo for posttraumatic stress disorder in a Department of Veterans Affairs setting. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2007;68(5):711–20. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v68n0508 17503980.
46. Hamner MB, Faldowski RA, Ulmer HG, Frueh BC, Huber MG, Arana GW. Adjunctive risperidone treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary controlled trial of effects on comorbid psychotic symptoms. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;18(1):1–8. doi: 10.1097/00004850-200301000-00001 12490768.
47. Himmerich H, Willmund GD, Zimmermann P, Wolf JE, Buhler AH, Kirkby KC, et al. Serum concentrations of TNF-alphas soluble receptors during psychotherapy in German soldiers suffering from combat-related PTSD. Psychiatria Danubina. 2016;28(3):293–8. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.178039 27658839.
48. Jensen JA. An investigation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy. 1994;25(2):311–25. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80290-4 1994-42215-001.
49. Jung K, Steil R. A randomized controlled trial on cognitive restructuring and imagery modification to reduce the feeling of being contaminated in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychother Psychosom. 2013;82(4):213–20. doi: 10.1159/000348450 23712073.
50. Keane TM, Fairbank JA, Caddell JM, Zimering RT. Implosive (flooding) therapy reduces symptoms of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy. 1989;20(2):245–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(89)80072-3.
51. Kearney DJ, McDermott K, Malte C, Martinez M, Simpson TL. Effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(1):14–27. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21911 22930491.
52. King AP, Erickson TM, Giardino ND, Favorite T, Rauch SA, Robinson E, et al. A pilot study of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Depress Anxiety. 2013;30(7):638–45. doi: 10.1002/da.22104 23596092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS671148.
53. Krystal JH, Rosenheck RA, Cramer JA, Vessicchio JC, Jones KM, Vertrees JE, et al. Adjunctive risperidone treatment for antidepressant-resistant symptoms of chronic military service-related PTSD: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2011;306(5):493–502. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1080 21813427.
54. Lande RG, Williams LB, Francis JL, Gragnani C, Morin ML. Efficacy of biofeedback for post-traumatic stress disorder. Complement Ther Med. 2010;18(6):256–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2010.08.004 21130362.
55. Lau M, Kristensen E. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2007;116(2):96–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00977.x WOS:000248087900003. 17650270
56. Lindley SE, Carlson EB, Hill K. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation topiramate for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(6):677–81. doi: 10.1097/jcp.0b013e31815a43ee 18004136.
57. Lundqvist G, Svedin CG, Hansson K, Broman I. Group therapy for women sexually abused as children: mental health before and after group therapy. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21(12):1665–77. doi: 10.1177/0886260506294986 17065660.
58. Margolies SO, Rybarczyk B, Lynch J, Vrana S. Efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia among Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/ OIF) veterans with PTSD. Sleep. 2011;34:A253–A4. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21970 71510995.
59. McDonagh A, Friedman M, McHugo G, Ford J, Sengupta A, Mueser K, et al. Randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(3):515–24. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.515 15982149.
60. Monnelly EP, Ciraulo DA, Knapp C, Keane T. Low-Dose Risperidone as Adjunctive Therapy for Irritable Aggression in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2003;23(2). doi: 10.1097/00004714-200304000-00012 12640221
61. Moradi AR, Moshirpanahi S, Parhon H, Mirzaei J, Dalgleish T, Jobson L. A pilot randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of MEmory Specificity Training in improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research & Therapy. 2014;56:68–74. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.002 24705337.
62. Nakamura Y, Lipschitz DL, Donaldson GW, Kida Y, Williams SL, Landward R, et al. Investigating Clinical Benefits of a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind-Body Program on Gulf War Illness Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychosom Med. 2017;79(6):706–18. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000469 28406803.
63. Naylor JC, Dolber TR, Strauss JL, Kilts JD, Strauman TJ, Bradford DW, et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial with paroxetine for subthreshold PTSD in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom era veterans. Psychiatry Research. 2013;206(2–3):318–20. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.11.008 2013-00092-001. 23276723
64. Otto MW, Hinton D, Korbly NB, Chea A, Ba P, Gershuny BS, et al. Treatment of pharmacotherapy-refractory posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees: a pilot study of combination treatment with cognitive-behavior therapy vs sertraline alone. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41(11):1271–6. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(03)00032-9 14527527.
65. Paunovic N, Ost LG. Cognitive-behavior therapy vs exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behav Res Ther. 2001;39(10):1183–97. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00093-0 11579988.
66. Pivac N, Kozaric-Kovacic D, Muck-Seler D. Olanzapine versus fluphenazine in an open trial in patients with psychotic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology. 2004;175(4):451–6. doi: 10.1007/s00213-004-1849-z 2004-19344-008. 15064916
67. Polusny MA, Erbes CR, Thuras P, Moran A, Lamberty GJ, Collins RC, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(5):456–65. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.8361 26241597.
68. Possemato K, Bergen-Cico D, Treatman S, Allen C, Wade M, Pigeon W. A randomized clinical trial of primary care brief mindfulness training for veterans with PTSD. J Clin Psychol. 2016;72(3):179–93. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22241 26613203.
69. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Hoff DJ, Hart KL, Holmes HA, Warren D, et al. A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(8):928–34. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.06.032 17069768.
70. Raskind MA, Peterson K, Williams T, Hoff DJ, Peskind ER. A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(9):1003–10. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12081133 23846759
71. Rauch SA, Kim H, Powell C, Tuerk PW, Simon NM, Acierno R, et al. Efficacy of prolonged exposure therapy, sertraline hydrochloride, and their combination among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(2):117–25. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3412 30516797
72. Reich DB, Winternitz S, Hennen J, Watts T, Stanculescu C. A preliminary study of risperidone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(12):1601–6. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v65n1204 15641864.
73. Rogers S, Silver SM, Goss J, Obenchain J, Willis A, Whitney RL. A Single Session, Group Study of Exposure and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Vietnam War Veterans: Preliminary Data. J Anxiety Disord. 1999;13(1):119–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(98)00043-7.
74. Stein MB, Kline NA, Matloff JL. Adjunctive olanzapine for SSRI-resistant combat-related PTSD: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;159(10):1777–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.10.1777 2002-04602-025. 12359687
75. Stenmark H, Catani C, Neuner F, Elbert T, Holen A. Treating PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers within the general health care system. A randomized controlled multicenter study. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51(10):641–7. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2013.07.002 23916633.
76. Teng EJ, Bailey SD, Chaison AD, Petersen NJ, Hamilton JD, Dunn NJ. Treating comorbid panic disorder in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(4):704–10. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.710 18665698.
77. Ulmer CS, Edinger JD, Calhoun PS. 21344046. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7(1):57–68.
78. Van der Kolk BA, Dreyfuss D, Michaels M, Shera D, Berkowitz R, Fisler R, et al. Fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55(12):517–22. 7814344.
79. Bichescu D, Neuner F, Schauer M, Elbert T. Narrative exposure therapy for political imprisonment-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Behaviour Research & Therapy. 2007;45(9):2212–20. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.12.006 17288990.
80. Bonilla-Escobar FJ, Fandino-Losada A, Martinez-Buitrago DM, Santaella-Tenorio J, Tobon-Garcia D, Munoz-Morales EJ, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral intervention for Afro-descendants' survivors of systemic violence in Colombia. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(12):e0208483. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208483 30532155.
81. Buhmann CB, Nordentoft M, Ekstroem M, Carlsson J, Mortensen EL. The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;208(3):252–9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.150961 26541687.
82. Carlson JG, Chemtob CM, Rusnak K, Hedlund NL, Muraoka MY. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Japanese Journal of Biofeedback Research. 1997;24:50–64. doi: 10.1023/A:1024448814268 1999-13197-003.
83. Carlsson J, Sonne C, Vindbjerg E, Mortensen EL. Stress management versus cognitive restructuring in trauma-affected refugees-A pragmatic randomised study. Psychiatry Research. 2018;266:116–23. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.015 29859498.
84. Cloitre M, Stovall-McClough KC, Nooner K, Zorbas P, Cherry S, Jackson CL, et al. Treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(8):915–24. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09081247 20595411.
85. Feske U. Treating low-income and minority women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study comparing prolonged exposure and treatment as usual conducted by community therapists. J Interpers Violence. 2008;23(8):1027–40. doi: 10.1177/0886260507313967 18292398.
86. Hermenau K, Hecker T, Schaal S, Maedl A, Elbert T. Addressing post-traumatic stress and aggression by means of narrative exposure: A randomized controlled trial with ex-combatants in the eastern DRC. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma. 2013;22(8):916–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.824057 369892869.
87. Hijazi AM, Lumley MA, Ziadni MS, Haddad L, Rapport LJ, Arnetz BB. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2014;27(3):314–22. doi: 10.1002/jts.21922 24866253; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS595425.
88. Hinton DE, Chhean D, Pich V, Safren SA, Hofmann SG, Pollack MH. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy for Cambodian refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: a cross-over design. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2005;18(6):617–29. doi: 10.1002/jts.20070 16382423.
89. Hinton DE, Pham T, Tran M, Safren SA, Otto MW, Pollack MH. CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: a pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2004;17(5):429–33. doi: 10.1023/B:JOTS.0000048956.03529.fa 15633922; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS144174.
90. Kosten TR, Krystal JH, Giller EL, Frank J, Dan E. Alexithymia as a predictor of treatment response in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1992;5(4):563–73. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.017 1993-18480-001.
91. Krupnick JL, Green BL, Stockton P, Miranda J, Krause E, Mete M. Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychother. 2008;18(5):497–507. doi: 10.1080/10503300802183678 18816001.
92. Kubany ES, Hill EE, Owens JA. Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD: preliminary findings. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2003;16(1):81–91. doi: 10.1023/A:1022019629803 12602656.
93. Kubany ES, Hill EE, Owens JA, Iannce-Spencer C, McCaig MA, Tremayne KJ, et al. Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD (CTT-BW). Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 2004;72(1):3–18. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.1.3 14756610.
94. Meffert SM, Abdo AO, Alla OAA, Elmakki YOM, Omer AA, Yousif S, et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for Sudanese refugees in Cairo, Egypt. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2014;6(3):240–9. doi: 10.1037/a0023540
95. Morgan T, Cummings AL. Change experienced during group therapy by female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1999;67(1):28–36. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.67.1.28 10028206
96. Salo J, Punamaki R-L, Qouta S, El Sarraj E. Individual and group treatment and self and other representations predicting posttraumatic recovery among former political prisoners. Traumatology. 2008;14(2):45–61. doi: 10.1177/1534765608319079 2009-10421-005.
97. Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Tarakeshwar N, Neufeld S, Meade CS, et al. Outcomes from a group intervention for coping with HIV/AIDS and childhood sexual abuse: reductions in traumatic stress. Aids Behav. 2007;11(1):49–60. doi: 10.1007/s10461-006-9149-8 16858634.
98. Sikkema KJ, Ranby KW, Meade CS, Hansen NB, Wilson PA, Kochman A. Reductions in traumatic stress following a coping intervention were mediated by decreases in avoidant coping for people living with HIV/AIDS and childhood sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013;81(2):274–83. doi: 10.1037/a0030144 23025248; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS433358.
99. Sonne C, Carlsson J, Bech P, Elklit A, Mortensen EL. Treatment of trauma-affected refugees with venlafaxine versus sertraline combined with psychotherapy-A randomised study. BMC Psychiatry Vol 16 2016, ArtID 383. 2016;16. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-1081-5 2016-54614-001. 27825327
100. Thorp SR, Glassman LH, Wells SY, Walter KH, Gebhardt H, Twamley E, et al. A randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure therapy versus relaxation training for older veterans with military-related PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2019;64:45–54. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.02.003 30978622
101. Weiss WM, Murray LK, Zangana GA, Mahmooth Z, Kaysen D, Dorsey S, et al. Community-based mental health treatments for survivors of torture and militant attacks in Southern Iraq: a randomized control trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:249. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0622-7 26467303.
102. Yeomans PD, Forman EM, Herbert JD, Yuen EK. A randomized trial of a reconciliation workshop with and without PTSD psychoeducation in Burundian sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2010;23(3):305–12. doi: 10.1002/jts.20531 20564362
103. Gamito P, Oliveira J, Rosa P, Morais D, Duarte N, OLiverira S, et al. PTSD Elderly War Veterans: A Clinical Controlled Pilot Study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2010;13(1):43–8. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0237 20528292.
104. Germain A, Richardson R, Moul DE, Mammen O, Haas G, Forman SD, et al. Placebo-controlled comparison of prazosin and cognitive-behavioral treatments for sleep disturbances in US Military Veterans. J Psychosom Res. 2012;72(2):89–96. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS342239. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.11.010 22281448
105. Katz LS, Douglas S, Zaleski K, Williams J, Huffman C, Cojucar G. Comparing holographic reprocessing and prolonged exposure for women veterans with sexual trauma: A pilot randomized trial. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. 2014;44(1):9–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10879-013-9248-6 52756441.
106. McLay RN, Wood DP, Webb-Murphy JA, Spira JL, Wiederhold MD, Pyne JM, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of virtual reality-graded exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2011;14(4):223–9. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0003 21332375.
107. Reger GM, Koenen-Woods P, Zetocha K, Smolenski DJ, Holloway KM, Rothbaum BO, et al. Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2016;84(11):946–59. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000134 27606699.
108. Resick PA, Wachen JS, Mintz J, Young-McCaughan S, Roache JD, Borah AM, et al. A randomized clinical trial of group cognitive processing therapy compared with group present-centered therapy for PTSD among active duty military personnel. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015;83(6):1058–68. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000016 25939018.
109. Miyahira SD, Folen RA, Hoffman HG, Garcia-Palacios A, Spira JL, Kawasaki M. The effectiveness of VR exposure therapy for PTSD in returning warfighters. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine. 2012;10:128–32. doi: 10.3233/978-1-61499-121-2-128
110. Acarturk C, Konuk E, Cetinkaya M, Senay I, Sijbrandij M, Cuijpers P, et al. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 2015;6:27414. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.27414 25989952.
111. Acarturk C, Konuk E, Cetinkaya M, Senay I, Sijbrandij M, Gulen B, et al. The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine. 2016;46(12):2583–93. doi: 10.1017/S0033291716001070 27353367.
112. Neuner F, Schauer M, Klaschik C, Karunakara U, Elbert T. A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(4):579–87. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.4.579 15301642.
113. Neuner F, Onyut PL, Ertl V, Odenwald M, Schauer E, Elbert T. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(4):686–94. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.686 18665696.
114. Yurtsever A, Konuk E, Akyuz T, Zat Z, Tukel F, Cetinkaya M, et al. An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Intervention for Syrian Refugees With Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychol. 2018;9:493. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00493 29946275.
115. Engel CC, Litz B, Magruder KM, Harper E, Gore K, Stein N, et al. Delivery of self training and education for stressful situations (DESTRESS-PC): a randomized trial of nurse assisted online self-management for PTSD in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2015;37(4):323–8. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.04.007 25929985; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS680713.
116. Franklin CL, Cuccurullo LA, Walton JL, Arseneau JR, Petersen NJ. Face to face but not in the same place: A pilot study of prolonged exposure therapy. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. 2017;18(1):116–30. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2016.1205704 27348462.
117. Knaevelsrud C, Böttche M, Pietrzak RH, Freyberger HJ, Kuwert P. Efficacy and Feasibility of a Therapist-Guided Internet-Based Intervention for Older Persons with Childhood Traumatization: A Randomized Controlled Trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2017;25(8):878–88. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2017.02.024 28365000.
118. Knaevelsrud C, Brand J, Lange A, Ruwaard J, Wagner B. Web-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in war-traumatized Arab patients: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(3):e71. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3582 25799024.
119. Ter Heide FJ, Mooren TM, Kleijn W, de Jongh A, Kleber RJ. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 2011;2. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5881 22893808.
120. Ter Heide FJ, Mooren TM, van de Schoot R, de Jongh A, Kleber RJ. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;209(4):311–8. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.167775 26892849.
121. Wahbeh H, Goodrich E, Goy E, Oken BS. Mechanistic pathways of mindfulness meditation in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychol. 2016;72(4):365–83. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCNIHMS744049. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22255 26797725
122. Wang SJ, Bytyci A, Izeti S, Kallaba M, Rushiti F, Montgomery E, et al. A novel bio-psycho-social approach for rehabilitation of traumatized victims of torture and war in the post-conflict context: a pilot randomized controlled trial in Kosovo. Confl Health. 2016;10:34. doi: 10.1186/s13031-016-0100-y 28191034.
123. Niles BL, Klunk-Gillis J, Ryngala DJ, Silberbogen AK, Paysnick A, EJ. W. Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatments for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2012;4:538–47. doi: 10.1037/a0026161
124. Panahi Y, Moghaddam BR, Sahebkar A, Nazari MA, Beiraghdar F, Karami G, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy and tolerability of sertraline in Iranian veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine. 2011;41(10):2159–66. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711000201 21349225.
125. Bass J, Murray SM, Mohammed TA, Bunn M, Gorman W, Ahmed AM, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Trauma-Informed Support, Skills, and Psychoeducation Intervention for Survivors of Torture and Related Trauma in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq. Global health, science and practice. 2016;4(3):452–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00017. 619970238.
126. Bolton P, Bass JK, Zangana GA, Kamal T, Murray SM, Kaysen D, et al. A randomized controlled trial of mental health interventions for survivors of systematic violence in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:360. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0360-2 25551436.
127. Ardani AR, Hosseini G, Bordbar MR, Talaei A, Toroghi HM. Effect of rivastigmine augmentation in treatment of male patients with combat-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (USA). 2017;37(1):54–60. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000624
128. Becker ME, Hertzberg MA, Moore SD, Dennis MF, Beckham JC. A placebo-controlled trial of bupropion SR in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (USA). 2007;27(2):193–7. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e318032eaed
129. Edmond T, Rubin A, Wambach KG. The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research. 1999;23(2):103–16. doi: 10.1093/swr/23.2.103
130. Franciskovic T, Sukovic Z, Janovic S, Stevanovic A, Nemcic-Moro I, Roncevic-Grzeta I, et al. Tianeptine in the combined treatment of combat related poasttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatria Danubina. 2011;23(3):257–63. 2011-23671-010. 21963693
131. Galano MM, Grogan-Kaylor AC, Stein SF, Clark HM, Graham-Bermann SA. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Latina women: Examining the efficacy of the Moms' Empowerment Program. Psychol Trauma. 2017;9(3):344–51. doi: 10.1037/tra0000218 27869463.
132. Kruse J, Joksimovic L, Cavka M, Woller W, Schmitz N. Effects of trauma-focused psychotherapy upon war refugees. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2009;22(6):585–92. doi: 10.1002/jts.20477 19960519.
133. Levi O, Bar-Haim Y, Kreiss Y, Fruchter E. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a comparative effectiveness study. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 2016;23(4):298–307. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1969 117169055.
134. Narimani M, Sadeghieh Ahari S, Rajabi S. Comparison of efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and cognitive behavioral therapy therapeutic methods for reducing anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted by post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2008;8(10):1932–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2008.1932.1937
135. Owens GP, Pike JL, Chard KM. Treatment effects of cognitive processing therapy on cognitive distortions of female child sexual abuse survivors. Behavior Therapy. 2001;32(3):413–24. 2002-12369-001.
136. Ready DJ, Gerardi RJ, Backscheider AG, Mascaro N, Rothbaum BO. Comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to present-centered therapy with 11 U.S. Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2010;13(1):49–54. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0239 20528293.
137. Reed GL, Enright RD. The effects of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(5):920–9. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.5.920 17032096.
138. Saxe BJ, Johnson SM. An empirical investigation of group treatment for a clinical population of adult female incest survivors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 1999;8(1):67–88. https://doi.org/10.1300/J070v08n01_05. 107099962.
139. Shapiro E, Laub B, Rosenblat O. Early EMDR intervention following intense rocket attacks on a town: A randomised clinical trial. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation. 2018;15(3):194–205. 2018-27261-003.
140. Smajkic A, Weine S, Djuric-Bijedic Z, Boskailo E, Lewis J, Pavkovic I. Sertraline, paroxetine, and venlafaxine in refugee posttraumatic stress disorder with depression symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2001;14(3):445–52. doi: 10.1023/A:1011177420069 11534876.
141. Spidel A, Lecomte T, Kealy D, Daigneault I. Acceptance and commitment therapy for psychosis and trauma: Improvement in psychiatric symptoms, emotion regulation, and treatment compliance following a brief group intervention. Psychology and Psychotherapy-Theory Research and Practice. 2018;91(2):248–61. doi: 10.1111/papt.12159 WOS:000434168200007. 28976056
142. Zlotnick C, Shea TM, Rosen K, Simpson E, Mulrenin K, Begin A, et al. An affect-management group for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1997;10(3):425–36. doi: 10.1023/a:1024841321156 9246650.
143. Zohar J, Amital D, Miodownik C, Kotler M, Bleich A, Lane RM, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sertraline in military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2002;22(2):190–5. doi: 10.1097/00004714-200204000-00013 11910265.
144. VA/DoD. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder. 2017.
145. Merz J, Schwarzer G, Gerger H. Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Pharmacological, Psychotherapeutic, and Combination Treatments in Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019. Epub 2019/06/13. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0951 31188399; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6563588.
146. Ehring T, Welboren R, Morina N, Wicherts JM, Freitag J, Emmelkamp PM. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clin Psychol Rev. 2014;34(8):645–57. Epub 2014/12/03. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.10.004 25455628.
147. Karatzias T, Murphy P, Cloitre M, Bisson J, Roberts N, Shevlin M, et al. Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2019;49(11):1761–75. Epub 2019/03/13. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719000436 30857567.
148. Turrini G, Purgato M, Acarturk C, Anttila M, Au T, Ballette F, et al. Efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in asylum seekers and refugees: systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2019;28(4):376–88. Epub 2019/02/12. doi: 10.1017/S2045796019000027 30739625; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6669989.
149. Nose M, Ballette F, Bighelli I, Turrini G, Purgato M, Tol W, et al. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(2):e0171030. Epub 2017/02/06. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171030 28151992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5289495.
150. Silove D, Ventevogel P, Rees S. The contemporary refugee crisis: an overview of mental health challenges. World Psychiatry. 2017;16(2):130–9. Epub 2017/05/13. doi: 10.1002/wps.20438 28498581; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5428192.
151. Landes SJ, Garovoy ND, Burkman KM. Treating complex trauma among veterans: three stage-based treatment models. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(5):523–33. Epub 2013/03/27. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21988 23529776.
152. Cloitre M. The "one size fits all" approach to trauma treatment: should we be satisfied? Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015;6:27344. Epub 2015/05/23. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.27344 25994021; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4439409.
153. Weisz JR, Chorpita BF, Palinkas LA, Schoenwald SK, Miranda J, Bearman SK, et al. Testing standard and modular designs for psychotherapy treating depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in youth: a randomized effectiveness trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(3):274–82. Epub 2011/11/09. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.147 22065252.
154. Sabri B, Gielen A. Integrated Multicomponent Interventions for Safety and Health Risks Among Black Female Survivors of Violence: A Systematic Review. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2017:1524838017730647. Epub 2018/01/16. doi: 10.1177/1524838017730647 29334001; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5771976.
155. Kitchiner NJ, Lewis C, Roberts NP, Bisson JI. Active duty and ex-serving military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder treated with psychological therapies: systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of psychotraumatology. 2019;10(1):1684226–. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2019.1684226 31762951.
156. McHugh RK, Whitton SW, Peckham AD, Welge JA, Otto MW. Patient preference for psychological vs pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(6):595–602. Epub 2013/07/12. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12r07757 23842011.
157. Williams R, Farquharson L, Palmer L, Bassett P, Clarke J, Clark DM, et al. Patient preference in psychological treatment and associations with self-reported outcome: national cross-sectional survey in England and Wales. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:4. Epub 2016/01/16. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0702-8 26768890; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4714467.
158. Martinez ME, Kearney DJ, Simpson T, Felleman BI, Bernardi N, Sayre G. Challenges to Enrollment and Participation in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Among Veterans: A Qualitative Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2015;21(7):409–21. Epub 2015/07/03. doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0324 26133205
159. Katon WJ, Lin EHB, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EJ, Young B, et al. Collaborative Care for Patients with Depression and Chronic Illnesses. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363(27):2611–20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1003955 21190455.
160. Coventry P, Lovell K, Dickens C, Bower P, Chew-Graham C, McElvenny D, et al. Integrated primary care for patients with mental and physical multimorbidity: cluster randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for patients with depression comorbid with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. BMJ. 2015;350:h638. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h638 25687344.
161. Engel CC, Jaycox LH, Freed MC, Bray RM, Brambilla D, Zatzick D, et al. Centrally Assisted Collaborative Telecare for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Military Personnel Attending Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(7):948–56. Epub 2016/06/14. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2402 27294447.
162. Rapaport MH, Clary C, Fayyad R, Endicott J. Quality-of-Life Impairment in Depressive and Anxiety Disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(6):1171–8. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1171 15930066.
163. Barrett DH, Doebbeling CC, Schwartz DA, Voelker MD, Falter KH, Woolson RF, et al. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Self-Reported Physical Health Status Among U.S. Military Personnel Serving During the Gulf War Period: A Population-Based Study. Psychosomatics. 2002;43(3):195–205. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.43.3.195 12075034
164. Giacco D, Matanov A, Priebe S. Symptoms and Subjective Quality of Life in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(4):e60991. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060991 23585868
165. Silove D. The ADAPT model: A conceptual framework for mental health and psychosocial programming in post conflict settings. Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work & Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict. 2013;11(3):237–48. doi: 10.1097/WTF.0000000000000005
166. Tay AK, Mung HK, Miah MAA, Balasundaram S, Ventevogel P, Badrudduza M, et al. An Integrative Adapt Therapy for common mental health symptoms and adaptive stress amongst Rohingya, Chin, and Kachin refugees living in Malaysia: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2020;17(3):e1003073. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003073 32231364
167. Kanters S, Ford N, Druyts E, Thorlund K, Mills EJ, N B. Use of network meta-analysis in clinical guidelines. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation. 2016;94:782–4.
168. Murphy D, Turgoose D. Exploring patterns of alcohol misuse in treatment-seeking UK veterans: A cross-sectional study. Addictive Behaviors. 2019;92:14–9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.11.044 30572207
169. Murphy D, Spencer-Harper L, Carson C, Palmer E, Hill K, Sorfleet N, et al. Long-term responses to treatment in UK veterans with military-related PTSD: an observational study. BMJ Open. 2016;6(9):e011667. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011667 27638494
170. Moustgaard H, Clayton GL, Jones HE, Boutron I, Jørgensen L, Laursen DRT, et al. Impact of blinding on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ. 2020;368:l6802. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l6802 31964641
171. Vaughan B, Goldstein MH, Alikakos M, Cohen LJ, Serby MJ. Frequency of reporting of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy vs. psychopharmacotherapy. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2014;55(4):849–55. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.01.001 24630200
172. Crawford MJ, Thana L, Farquharson L, Palmer L, Hancock E, Bassett P, et al. Patient experience of negative effects of psychological treatment: results of a national survey. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;208(3):260–5. Epub 2018/01/02. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.162628 26932486
173. Parry GD, Crawford MJ, Duggan C. Iatrogenic harm from psychological therapies–time to move on. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;208(3):210–2. Epub 2018/01/02. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.163618 26932481
Článek vyšel v časopise
2020 Číslo 8
- Výběr zajímavých novinek mezi humánními léčivými přípravky roku 2022
- Lékárníky odrazuje od vydávání léčebného konopí komplikovaná legislativa
- Možnosti ovlivnění mikrobioty při funkčních gastrointestinálních potížích
- Perorální semaglutid ve formě tablet k léčbě DM 2. typu nyní dostupný i v Česku
- „Šílený med“: požitek, zbraň i léčivo tradiční medicíny
Nejčtenější v tomto čísle
- Social distancing to slow the US COVID-19 epidemic: Longitudinal pretest–posttest comparison group study
- Coming together to improve access to medicines: The genesis of the East African Community’s Medicines Regulatory Harmonization initiative
- Age and the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: A cerebrospinal fluid biomarker–based case–control study
- A clinical algorithm for same-day HIV treatment initiation in settings with high TB symptom prevalence in South Africa: The SLATE II individually randomized clinical trial
Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova
Deprese u dětí a adolescentůnový kurz