Residential green space and child intelligence and behavior across urban, suburban, and rural areas in Belgium: A longitudinal birth cohort study of twins

Autoři: Esmée M. Bijnens aff001;  Catherine Derom aff002;  Evert Thiery aff004;  Steven Weyers aff002;  Tim S. Nawrot aff001
Působiště autorů: Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium aff001;  Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium aff002;  Centre of Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium aff003;  Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium aff004;  Department of Public Health, Leuven University (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: Residential green space and child intelligence and behavior across urban, suburban, and rural areas in Belgium: A longitudinal birth cohort study of twins. PLoS Med 17(8): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003213
Kategorie: Research Article



Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children.

Methods and findings

This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity.

We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4–3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI −3.5 to −0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors).


Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.

Klíčová slova:

Human intelligence – Children – Intelligence – Intelligence tests – Schools – Twins – Urban areas – Urban environments


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