Effector memory differentiation increases detection of replication-competent HIV-l in resting CD4+ T cells from virally suppressed individuals


Autoři: Elizabeth R. Wonderlich aff001;  Krupa Subramanian aff001;  Bryan Cox aff002;  Ann Wiegand aff003;  Carol Lackman-Smith aff001;  Michael J. Bale aff003;  Mars Stone aff004;  Rebecca Hoh aff006;  Mary F. Kearney aff003;  Frank Maldarelli aff003;  Steven G. Deeks aff006;  Michael P. Busch aff004;  Roger G. Ptak aff001;  Deanna A. Kulpa aff002
Působiště autorů: Southern Research, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America aff001;  Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff002;  HIV DRP, NCI at Frederick, NIH, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America aff003;  Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America aff004;  Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America aff005;  University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California, United States of America aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: Effector memory differentiation increases detection of replication-competent HIV-l in resting CD4+ T cells from virally suppressed individuals. PLoS Pathog 15(10): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008074
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008074

Souhrn

Studies have demonstrated that intensive ART alone is not capable of eradicating HIV-1, as the virus rebounds within a few weeks upon treatment interruption. Viral rebound may be induced from several cellular subsets; however, the majority of proviral DNA has been found in antigen experienced resting CD4+ T cells. To achieve a cure for HIV-1, eradication strategies depend upon both understanding mechanisms that drive HIV-1 persistence as well as sensitive assays to measure the frequency of infected cells after therapeutic interventions. Assays such as the quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) measure HIV-1 persistence during ART by ex vivo activation of resting CD4+ T cells to induce latency reversal; however, recent studies have shown that only a fraction of replication-competent viruses are inducible by primary mitogen stimulation. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the acquisition of effector memory phenotype and HIV-1 latency reversal in quiescent CD4+ T cell subsets that harbor the reservoir. Here, we apply our mechanistic understanding that differentiation into effector memory CD4+ T cells more effectively promotes HIV-1 latency reversal to significantly improve proviral measurements in the QVOA, termed differentiation QVOA (dQVOA), which reveals a significantly higher frequency of the inducible HIV-1 replication-competent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells.

Klíčová slova:

Cell differentiation – Cytokines – HIV – HIV-1 – Memory T cells – T cells – Viral persistence and latency – Viral replication


Zdroje

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