Therapeutic monoclonal antibody treatment protects nonhuman primates from severe Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disease after aerosol exposure

Autoři: Crystal W. Burke aff001;  Jeffery W. Froude aff001;  Franco Rossi aff002;  Charles E. White aff003;  Crystal L. Moyer aff004;  Jane Ennis aff004;  M. Louise Pitt aff001;  Stephen Streatfield aff005;  R. Mark Jones aff005;  Konstantin Musiychuk aff005;  Jukka Kervinen aff005;  Larry Zeitlin aff004;  Vidadi Yusibov aff005;  Pamela J. Glass aff001
Působiště autorů: Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America aff001;  Center of Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America aff002;  Biostatisics Branch, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, Fort Detrick Maryland, United States of America aff003;  Mapp Biopharmaceutical, Inc., San Diego, California, United States of America aff004;  Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology, Newark, Delaware, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: Therapeutic monoclonal antibody treatment protects nonhuman primates from severe Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disease after aerosol exposure. PLoS Pathog 15(12): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008157
Kategorie: Research Article


There are no FDA licensed vaccines or therapeutics for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) which causes a debilitating acute febrile illness in humans that can progress to encephalitis. Previous studies demonstrated that murine and macaque monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against VEEV peripheral and aerosol challenge in mice. Additionally, humanized versions of two neutralizing mAbs specific for the E2 glycoprotein, 1A3B-7 and 1A4A-1, administered singly protected mice against aerosolized VEEV. However, no studies have demonstrated protection in nonhuman primate (NHP) models of VEEV infection. Here, we evaluated a chimeric antibody 1A3B-7 (c1A3B-7) containing mouse variable regions on a human IgG framework and a humanized antibody 1A4A-1 containing a serum half-life extension modification (Hu-1A4A-1-YTE) for their post-exposure efficacy in NHPs exposed to aerosolized VEEV. Approximately 24 hours after exposure, NHPs were administered a single bolus intravenous mAb. Control NHPs had typical biomarkers of VEEV infection including measurable viremia, fever, and lymphopenia. In contrast, c1A3B-7 treated NHPs had significant reductions in viremia and lymphopenia and on average approximately 50% reduction in fever. Although not statistically significant, Hu-1A4A-1-YTE administration did result in reductions in viremia and fever duration. Delay of treatment with c1A3B-7 to 48 hours post-exposure still provided NHPs protection from severe VEE disease through reductions in viremia and fever. These results demonstrate that post-exposure administration of c1A3B-7 protected macaques from development of severe VEE disease even when administered 48 hours following aerosol exposure and describe the first evaluations of VEEV-specific mAbs for post-exposure prophylactic use in NHPs. Viral mutations were identified in one NHP after c1A3B-7 treatment administered 24 hrs after virus exposure. This suggests that a cocktail-based therapy, or an alternative mAb against an epitope that cannot mutate without resulting in loss of viral fitness may be necessary for a highly effective therapeutic.

Klíčová slova:

Aerosols – Antibodies – Fevers – Lymphocytes – Macaque – Neutropenia – Viremia – Lymphopenia


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