1. Alzheimer's Society. Counting the cost: Caring for people with dementia on hospital wards. London, UK: 2009.
2. Briggs R, Coary R, Collins R, Coughlan T, O'Neill D, Kennelly SP. Acute hospital care: how much activity is attributable to caring for patients with dementia? QJM. 2016;109(1):41–4. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcv085 25956392
3. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Who Care's Wins: Improving the outcome for older people admitted to the general hospital. London: Faculty of Old Age Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2005.
4. Fong TG, Davis D, Growdon ME, Albuquerque A, Inouye SK. The interface between delirium and dementia in elderly adults. The Lancet Neurology. 2015;14(8):823–32. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00101-5 26139023
5. Mukadam N, Sampson EL. A systematic review of the prevalence, associations and outcomes of dementia in older general hospital inpatients. Int Psychogeriatr. 2011;23(3):344–55. doi: 10.1017/S1041610210001717 20716393
6. Sampson EL, Blanchard MR, Jones L, Tookman A, King M. Dementia in the acute hospital: prospective cohort study of prevalence and mortality. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195(1):61–6. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.055335 19567898
7. Briggs R, Dyer A, Nabeel S, Collins R, Doherty J, Coughlan T, et al. Dementia in the acute hospital: the prevalence and clinical outcomes of acutely unwell patients with dementia. QJM. 2016;110(1):33–37. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcw114 27486262
8. Travers C, Byrne G, Pachana N, Klein K, Gray L. Prospective observational study of dementia and delirium in the acute hospital setting. Intern Med J. 2013;43(3):262–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2012.02962.x 22998322
9. Nightingale S, Holmes J, Mason J, House A. Psychiatric illness and mortality after hip fracture. Lancet. 2001;357(9264):1264–5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04421-4 11418154
10. Crowther GJ, Bennett MI, Holmes JD. How well are the diagnosis and symptoms of dementia recorded in older patients admitted to hospital? Age Ageing. 2017; 46(1):112–118. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw169 27614081
11. Glover A, Bradshaw LE, Watson N, Laithwaite E, Goldberg SE, Whittamore KH, et al. Diagnoses, problems and healthcare interventions amongst older people with an unscheduled hospital admission who have concurrent mental health problems: a prevalence study. BMC geriatrics. 2014;14:43. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-14-43 24694034
12. Laurila JV, Pitkala KH, Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS. Detection and documentation of dementia and delirium in acute geriatric wards. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004;26(1):31–5. 14757300
13. Jackson TA, MacLullich AM, Gladman JR, Lord JM, Sheehan B. Undiagnosed long-term cognitive impairment in acutely hospitalised older medical patients with delirium: a prospective cohort study. Age Ageing. 2016;45(4):493–9. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw064 27076525
14. Sampson EL, White N, Leurent B, Scott S, Lord K, Round J, et al. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital: prospective cohort study. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;205(3):189–96. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.130948 25061120
15. Sheehan BD, Lall R, Stinton C, Mitchell K, Gage H, Holland C, et al. Patient and proxy measurement of quality of life among general hospital in-patients with dementia. Aging & mental health. 2012;16(5):603–7.
16. White N, Leurent B, Lord K, Scott S, Jones L, Sampson EL. The management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in the acute general medical hospital: a longitudinal cohort study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017; 32:297–305. doi: 10.1002/gps.4463
17. Mecocci P, von Strauss E, Cherubini A, Ercolani S, Mariani E, Senin U, et al. Cognitive impairment is the major risk factor for development of geriatric syndromes during hospitalization: results from the GIFA study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;20(4):262–9. doi: 10.1159/000087440 16103670
18. Bail K, Goss J, Draper B, Berry H, Karmel R, Gibson D. The cost of hospital-acquired complications for older people with and without dementia; a retrospective cohort study. BMC health services research. 2015;15:91. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-0743-1 25890030
19. Sheehan B, Lall R, Gage H, Holland C, Katz J, Mitchell K. A 12-month follow-up study of people with dementia referred to general hospital liaison psychiatry services. Age Ageing. 2013;42(6):786–90. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft139 24166239
20. Bradshaw LE, Goldberg SE, Lewis SA, Whittamore K, Gladman JR, Jones RG, et al. Six-month outcomes following an emergency hospital admission for older adults with co-morbid mental health problems indicate complexity of care needs. Age Ageing. 2013;42(5):582–8. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft074 23800454
21. Torisson G, Minthon L, Stavenow L, Londos E. Cognitive impairment is undetected in medical inpatients: a study of mortality and recognition amongst healthcare professionals. BMC geriatrics. 2012;12(1):47.
22. Tadd W, Hillman A, Calnan S, Calnan M, Bayer T, Read S. Right place—wrong person: dignity in the acute care of older people. Quality in Ageing and Older Adults. 2011;12(1):33–43.
23. Maclullich AM, Anand A, Davis DH, Jackson T, Barugh AJ, Hall RJ, et al. New horizons in the pathogenesis, assessment and management of delirium. Age Ageing. 2013;42(6):667–74. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft148 24067500
24. Ahmed S, Leurent B, Sampson EL. Risk factors for incident delirium among older people in acute hospital medical units: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2014;43(3):326–33. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu022 24610863
25. Morandi A, McCurley J, Vasilevskis EE, Fick DM, Bellelli G, Lee P, et al. Tools to detect delirium superimposed on dementia: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(11):2005–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04199.x 23039270
26. Davis DH, Muniz Terrera G, Keage H, Rahkonen T, Oinas M, Matthews FE, et al. Delirium is a strong risk factor for dementia in the oldest-old: a population-based cohort study. Brain. 2012;135(Pt 9):2809–16. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws190 22879644
27. Davis DJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Keage HD, Stephan BC, Fleming J, Ince PG, et al. Association of delirium with cognitive decline in late life: A neuropathologic study of 3 population-based cohort studies. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online January 18, 2017. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3423
28. Jackson TA, Wilson D, Richardson S, Lord JM. Predicting outcome in older hospital patients with delirium: a systematic literature review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(4):392–9. doi: 10.1002/gps.4344 26302258
29. Burns A, Robert P. The National Dementia strategy in England. BMJ. 2009;338:b931. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b931 19276132
30. Cole MG. Persistent delirium in older hospital patients. Current opinion in psychiatry. 2010;23(3):250–4. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32833861f6 20224406
31. Fick DM, Agostini JV, Inouye SK. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(10):1723–32. 12366629
32. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, Mazzola P, Turco R, Gentile S, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014;43(4):496–502. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu021 24590568
33. Vann Jones SA, O'Brien JT. The prevalence and incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies: a systematic review of population and clinical studies. Psychol Med. 2014;44(4):673–83. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713000494 23521899
34. Jackson TA, Naqvi SH, Sheehan B. Screening for dementia in general hospital inpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of available instruments. Age Ageing. 2013;42(6):689–95. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft145 24100618
35. Jackson TA, MacLullich AM, Gladman JR, Lord JM, Sheehan B. Diagnostic test accuracy of informant-based tools to diagnose dementia in older hospital patients with delirium: a prospective cohort study. Age Ageing. 2016;45(4):505–11. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw065 27076526
36. Porock D, Clissett P, Harwood RH, Gladman JR. Disruption, control and coping: responses of and to the person with dementia in hospital. Ageing Soc. 2015;35(1):37–63. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X13000561 25878366
37. Jurgens FJ, Clissett P, Gladman JR, Harwood RH. Why are family carers of people with dementia dissatisfied with general hospital care? A qualitative study. BMC geriatrics. 2012;12(1):57.
38. Prestmo A, Saltvedt I, Helbostad JL, Taraldsen K, Thingstad P, Lydersen S, et al. Who benefits from orthogeriatric treatment? Results from the Trondheim hip-fracture trial. BMC geriatrics. 2016;16:49. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0218-1 26895846
39. Oliver D, Connelly JB, Victor CR, Shaw FE, Whitehead A, Genc Y, et al. Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2007;334(7584):82. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39049.706493.55 17158580
40. Hshieh TT, Yue J, Oh E, Puelle M, Dowal S, Travison T, et al. Effectiveness of multicomponent nonpharmacological delirium interventions: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):512–20. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7779 25643002
41. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, Teale EA, Young J, Taylor J, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2016;3(3):CD005563.
42. Abdelhamid A, Bunn D, Copley M, Cowap V, Dickinson A, Gray L, et al. Effectiveness of interventions to directly support food and drink intake in people with dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics. 2016;16(1):26.
43. King BJ, Gilmore-Bykovskyi AL, Roiland RA, Polnaszek BE, Bowers BJ, Kind AJ. The consequences of poor communication during transitions from hospital to skilled nursing facility: a qualitative study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(7):1095–102. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12328 23731003
44. George J, Adamson J, Woodford H. Joint geriatric and psychiatric wards: a review of the literature. Age Ageing. 2011;40(5):543–8. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afr080 21784760
45. Goldberg SE, Bradshaw LE, Kearney FC, Russell C, Whittamore KH, Foster PER, et al. Care in specialist medical and mental health unit compared with standard care for older people with cognitive impairment admitted to general hospital: randomised controlled trial (NIHR TEAM trial). BMJ 2013;347:f4132. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4132 23819964
46. Tanajewski L, Franklin M, Gkountouras G, Berdunov V, Harwood RH, Goldberg SE, et al. Economic Evaluation of a General Hospital Unit for Older People with Delirium and Dementia (TEAM Randomised Controlled Trial). PLoS ONE. 2015;10(12):e0140662. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140662 26684872
47. Reynish E. O-093: Prevalence, mortality and readmission of people with dementia, delirium and other cognitive spectrum disorders in the general hospital. European Geriatric Medicine. 2015;6:S177–S8.
48. George J, Long S, Vincent C. How can we keep patients with dementia safe in our acute hospitals? A review of challenges and solutions. J R Soc Med. 2013;106(9):355–61. doi: 10.1177/0141076813476497 23759885
49. Manthorpe J, Moriarty J. Nothing ventured, nothing gained: risk guidance for people with dementia. Department of health, HMG. London: 2010.
50. American Nurses Association. Delirium: Prevent, Identify, Treat 2017. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/Delirium.
51. Surr CA, Smith SJ, Crossland J, Robins J. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2016;53:144–51. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.009 26421910
52. Fleming R, Sum S. Empirical studies on the effectiveness of assistive technology in the care of people with dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Assistive Technologies. 2014;8(1):14–34.