RHS-elements function as type II toxin-antitoxin modules that regulate intra-macrophage replication of Salmonella Typhimurium

Autoři: Magnus Stårsta aff001;  Disa L. Hammarlöf aff001;  Marcus Wäneskog aff001;  Susan Schlegel aff001;  Feifei Xu aff001;  Arvid Heden Gynnå aff001;  Malin Borg aff001;  Sten Herschend aff001;  Sanna Koskiniemi aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: RHS-elements function as type II toxin-antitoxin modules that regulate intra-macrophage replication of Salmonella Typhimurium. PLoS Genet 16(2): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008607
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008607


RHS elements are components of conserved toxin-delivery systems, wide-spread within the bacterial kingdom and some of the most positively selected genes known. However, very little is known about how Rhs toxins affect bacterial biology. Salmonella Typhimurium contains a full-length rhs gene and an adjacent orphan rhs gene, which lacks the conserved delivery part of the Rhs protein. Here we show that, in addition to the conventional delivery, Rhs toxin-antitoxin pairs encode for functional type-II toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that regulate S. Typhimurium proliferation within macrophages. Mutant S. Typhimurium cells lacking both Rhs toxins proliferate 2-times better within macrophages, mainly because of an increased growth rate. Thus, in addition to providing strong positive selection for the rhs loci under conditions when there is little or no toxin delivery, internal expression of the toxin-antitoxin system regulates growth in the stressful environment found inside macrophages.

Klíčová slova:

Antitoxins – Arabinose – Cell-mediated immunity – Macrophages – Proteases – Salmonella – Salmonella typhimurium – Toxins


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