Ribosome binding protein GCN1 regulates the cell cycle and cell proliferation and is essential for the embryonic development of mice

Autoři: Hiromi Yamazaki aff001;  Shuya Kasai aff001;  Junsei Mimura aff001;  Peng Ye aff001;  Atsushi Inose-Maruyama aff001;  Kunikazu Tanji aff002;  Koichi Wakabayashi aff002;  Seiya Mizuno aff003;  Fumihiro Sugiyama aff003;  Satoru Takahashi aff003;  Tsubasa Sato aff001;  Taku Ozaki aff004;  Douglas R. Cavener aff005;  Masayuki Yamamoto aff006;  Ken Itoh aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Stress Response Science, Center for Advanced Medical Research, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan aff001;  Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan aff002;  Transborder Medical Research Center and Laboratory Animal Resource Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan aff003;  Department of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan aff004;  Department of Biology, Center for Cellular Dynamics and the Huck Institute of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff005;  Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: Ribosome binding protein GCN1 regulates the cell cycle and cell proliferation and is essential for the embryonic development of mice. PLoS Genet 16(4): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008693
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008693


Amino acids exert many biological functions, serving as allosteric regulators and neurotransmitters, as constituents in proteins and as nutrients. GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (elF2α) restores homeostasis in response to amino acid starvation (AAS) through the inhibition of the general translation and upregulation of amino acid biosynthetic enzymes and transporters by activating the translation of Gcn4 and ATF4 in yeast and mammals, respectively. GCN1 is a GCN2-binding protein that possesses an RWD binding domain (RWDBD) in its C-terminus. In yeast, Gcn1 is essential for Gcn2 activation by AAS; however, the roles of GCN1 in mammals need to be established. Here, we revealed a novel role of GCN1 that does not depend on AAS by generating two Gcn1 mutant mouse lines: Gcn1-knockout mice (Gcn1 KO mice (Gcn1-/-)) and RWDBD-deleted mutant mice (Gcn1ΔRWDBD mice). Both mutant mice showed growth retardation, which was not observed in the Gcn2 KO mice, such that the Gcn1 KO mice died at the intermediate stage of embryonic development because of severe growth retardation, while the Gcn1ΔRWDBD embryos showed mild growth retardation and died soon after birth, most likely due to respiratory failure. Extension of pregnancy by 24 h through the administration of progesterone to the pregnant mothers rescued the expression of differentiation markers in the lungs and prevented lethality of the Gcn1ΔRWDBD pups, indicating that perinatal lethality of the Gcn1ΔRWDBD embryos was due to simple growth retardation. Similar to the yeast Gcn2/Gcn1 system, AAS- or UV irradiation-induced elF2α phosphorylation was diminished in the Gcn1ΔRWDBD mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), suggesting that GCN1 RWDBD is responsible for GCN2 activity. In addition, we found reduced cell proliferation and G2/M arrest accompanying a decrease in Cdk1 and Cyclin B1 in the Gcn1ΔRWDBD MEFs. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that GCN1 is essential for both GCN2-dependent stress response and GCN2-independent cell cycle regulation.

Klíčová slova:

Cell cycle and cell division – Cellular stress responses – Cyclins – Embryos – Growth restriction – Immunoblot analysis – Lung development – Phosphorylation


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