Trickle infection and immunity to Trichuris muris

Autoři: Maya Glover aff001;  Stefano A. P. Colombo aff001;  David J. Thornton aff001;  Richard K. Grencis aff001
Působiště autorů: Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom aff001;  Wellcome Centre for Cell Matrix Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: Trickle infection and immunity to Trichuris muris. PLoS Pathog 15(11): e1007926. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1007926
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007926


The majority of experiments investigating the immune response to gastrointestinal helminth infection use a single bolus infection. However, in situ individuals are repeatedly infected with low doses. Therefore, to model natural infection, mice were repeatedly infected (trickle infection) with low doses of Trichuris muris. Trickle infection resulted in the slow acquisition of immunity reflected by a gradual increase in worm burden followed by partial expulsion. Flow cytometry revealed that the CD4+ T cell response shifted from Th1 dominated to Th2 dominated, which coincided with an increase in Type 2 cytokines. The development of resistance following trickle infection was associated with increased worm expulsion effector mechanisms including goblet cell hyperplasia, Muc5ac production and increased epithelial cell turn over. Depletion of CD4+ T cells reversed resistance confirming their importance in protective immunity following trickle infection. In contrast, depletion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells did not alter protective immunity. T. muris trickle infection resulted in a dysbiotic mircrobiota which began to recover alpha diversity following the development of resistance. These data establish trickle infection as a robust and informative model for analysis of immunity to chronic intestinal helminth infection more akin to that observed under natural infection conditions and confirms the importance of CD4+ T cell adaptive immunity in host protection.

Klíčová slova:

Helminth infections – Immune response – Microbiome – Nematode infections – Parasitic diseases – Parasitic intestinal diseases – T cells – Trichuriasis


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