Xist RNA in action: Past, present, and future

Autoři: Agnese Loda aff001;  Edith Heard aff001
Působiště autorů: Directors’ research, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany aff001;  Collège de France, Paris, France aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: Xist RNA in action: Past, present, and future. PLoS Genet 15(9): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008333
Kategorie: Review
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008333


In mammals, dosage compensation of sex chromosomal genes between females (XX) and males (XY) is achieved through X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). The X-linked X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist) long noncoding RNA is indispensable for XCI and initiates the process early during development by spreading in cis across the X chromosome from which it is transcribed. During XCI, Xist RNA triggers gene silencing, recruits a plethora of chromatin modifying factors, and drives a major structural reorganization of the X chromosome. Here, we review our knowledge of the multitude of epigenetic events orchestrated by Xist RNA to allow female mammals to survive through embryonic development by establishing and maintaining proper dosage compensation. In particular, we focus on recent studies characterizing the interaction partners of Xist RNA, and we discuss how they have affected the field by addressing long-standing controversies or by giving rise to new research perspectives that are currently being explored. This review is dedicated to the memory of Denise Barlow, pioneer of genomic imprinting and functional long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), whose work has revolutionized the epigenetics field and continues to inspire generations of scientists.

Klíčová slova:

Biology and life sciences – Genetics – Gene expression – Gene regulation – Gene silencing – Dosage compensation – X chromosome inactivation – Silencer elements – DNA transcription – Heredity – Genetic linkage – Sex linkage – X-linked traits – Epigenetics – Genomics – Genome complexity – Non-coding RNA sequences – Cell biology – Chromosome biology – Chromatin – Biochemistry – Nucleic acids – RNA – Non-coding RNA – Long non-coding RNAs – Computational biology – Medicine and health sciences – Clinical genetics


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