Economic influences on population health in the United States: Toward policymaking driven by data and evidence


Autoři: Atheendar S. Venkataramani aff001;  Rourke O’Brien aff003;  Gregory L. Whitehorn aff001;  Alexander C. Tsai aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff001;  Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff002;  Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America aff003;  Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff004;  Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America aff005;  Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: Economic influences on population health in the United States: Toward policymaking driven by data and evidence. PLoS Med 17(9): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003319
Kategorie: Collection Review
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003319

Souhrn

Atheendar S. Venkataramani and colleagues discuss economic factors and population health in the United States.

Klíčová slova:

Behavioral and social aspects of health – Death rates – Economics of training and education – Environmental economics – Health care policy – Health economics – Labor economics – Socioeconomic aspects of health


Zdroje

1. Woolf SH, Schoomaker H. Life expectancy and mortality in the United States, 1959–2017. JAMA. 2019;322(20):1996–2016. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.16932 31769830

2. Bor J, Cohen G, Galea S. Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980–2015. Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1475–940. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30571-8 28402829

3. Case A, Deaton A. Mortality and morbidity in the 21st Century. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 2017;Spring:397–443.

4. Chetty R, Stepner M, Abraham S, Lin S, Scuderi B, Turner N, et al. The association between income and life expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014. JAMA. 2016;315(16):1750–66. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.4226 27063997

5. Donovan SA, Bradley DH. Real Wage Trends, 1979–2018. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service; 2019.

6. Davis J, Mazumdar B. The decline in intergenerational mobility after 1980. Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality; 2020.

7. Aaronson D, Mazumdar B. Intergenerational economic mobility in the United States, 1940–2000. Journal of Human Resources. 2008;43(1):139–72.

8. Chetty R, Grusky D, Hell M, Hendren N, Manduca R, Narang J. The fading American dream: trends in absolute income mobility since 1940. Science. 2017. doi: 10.1126/science.aal4617 28438988

9. Western B, Bloome D, Sosnaud B, Tach L. Economic insecurity and social stratification. Annual Review of Sociology. 2012;38:341–59.

10. Piketty T. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press; 2014.

11. Autor D, Katz LF, Kearney MS. Trends in U.S. wage inequality: revising the revisionists. Review of Economics and Statistics. 2008;90(2):300–23.

12. Autor D, Dorn D. The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the US labor market. American Economic Review. 2013;103(5):1553–397.

13. Pierce JR, Schott PK. The surprisingly swift decline of US manufacturing employment. American Economic Review. 2016;106(7):1632–62.

14. Acemoglu D, Restrepo P. Robots and jobs: evidence from US labor markets. Journal of Political Economy. 2020;120(6):2188–244.

15. Autor D, Dorn D, Hanson G. The China shock: learning from labor-market adjustment to large changes in trade. Annual Review of Economics. 2016;8:205–40.

16. Dill J, Hodges MJ. Is healthcare the new manufacturing?: industry, gender, and “good jobs” for low- and middle-skill workers. Social Science Research. 2019;84:e102350.

17. Himmelstein KEW, Venkataramani AS. Economic vulnerability among US female health care workers: potential impact of a $15-per-hour minimum wage. American Journal of Public Health. 2019;109(2):198–205. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304801 30571300

18. Cengiz D, Dube A, Lindner A, Zipperer B. The effect of minimum wage on low-wage jobs. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2019;134(3):1405–54.

19. Dube A. Minimum wages and the distribution of family incomes. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2019;11(4):268–304.

20. Davis GF, Kim S. Financialization of the economy. Annual Review of Sociology. 2015;41:203–21.

21. Wolff EN. Household wealth trends in the United States, 1962 to 2016: has middle class wealth recovered? NBER Working Paper No 24085. 2017.

22. Western B, Rosenfeld J. Unions, norms, and the rise in U.S. wage inequality. American Sociological Review. 2011;76(4):513–37.

23. Farber HS, Herbst D, Kuziemko I, Naidu S. Unions and inequality over the twentieth century: new evidence from survey data. NBER Working paper No 24587. 2018.

24. Small ML, Pager D. Sociological perspectives on racial discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2020;34(2):49–67.

25. Bayer P, Charles KK. Divergent paths: a new perspective on earnings differences between Black and White men since 1940. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2018;133(3):1459–501.

26. Western B, Pettit B. Incarceration and social inequality. Daedalus. 2010;(Summer):8–19. doi: 10.1162/daed_a_00019 21032946

27. Wilson WJ. When Work Disappears: The New World of the Urban Poor. Alfred A Knopf; 1996.

28. Boustan L. Was postwar suburbanization “White flight”? Evidence from the Black migration. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2010;125(1):417–43.

29. Cutler D, Glaeser E, Vigdor J. The rise and decline of the American ghetto. Journal of Political Economy. 1999;107(3):455–506.

30. Aaronson D, Hartley D, Mazumdar B. The effects of the 1930s HOLC “redlining” maps. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper. 2019 [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: https://www.chicagofed.org/~/media/publications/working-papers/2017/wp2017-12-pdf

31. Boustan L. Racial residential segregation in American cities. In: Brooks N, Donaghy K, Knapp G-J, editors. The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 318–39.

32. Rugh JS, Massey DS. Racial segregation and the American foreclosure crisis. American Sociological Review. 2010;75(5):629–51. doi: 10.1177/0003122410380868 25308973

33. Ananat EO. The wrong side(s) of the tracks: the causal effects of racial segregation on urban poverty and inequality. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2011;3(2):34–66.

34. Edin K, Shaefer HL. $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America. New York: Houghton Miffin Harcourt; 2015.

35. Floyd I. Cash Assistance Should Reach Millions More Families. Washington, D.C.: Center for Budget and Policy Priorities; 2020.

36. Benach J, Vives A, Amable M, Vanroelen C, Tarafa G, Muntaner C. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual Review of Public Health. 2014;35:229–53. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182500 24641559

37. Whittle H, Leddy AM, Shieh J, TIen PC, Ofotokun I, Adimora AA, et al. Precarity and health: theorizing the intersection of multiple material-need insecurities, stigma, and illness among women in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2020;245:e112683.

38. Bhattacharya J, DeLeire T, Haider S, Currie J. Heat or eat? Cold-weather shocks and nutrition in poor American families. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93(7):1149–54. doi: 10.2105/ajph.93.7.1149 12835201

39. McKee M, Reeves A, Clair A, Stuckler D. Living on the edge: precariousness and why it matters for public health. Archives of Public Health. 2017;75(1):13.

40. Adler NE, Rehkoph DH. U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annual Review of Public Health. 2008;29:235–52. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090852 18031225

41. Khullar D, Chokshi DA. Health, income, and poverty: where we are and what could help? Health Affairs Health Policy Brief [Internet]. 2018. doi: 10.1377/hpb20180817.901935

42. Marmot M. The Health Gap. London: Bloomsbury; 2015.

43. Mohai P, Pellow D, Roberts JT. Environmental justice. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2009;34:405–30.

44. Banzhaf S, Ma L, Timmins C. Environmental justice: the economics of race, place, and pollution. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2019;33(1):185–208. 30707005

45. Adler NE, Newman K. Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Affairs. 2002;21(2):60–76. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.60 11900187

46. Boen C, Yang YC. The physiological impacts of wealth shocks in late life: evidence from the Great Recession. Social Science and Medicine. 2016;150:221–30. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.12.029 26773705

47. Browman AS, Destin M, Kearney M, Levine P. How economic inequality shapes mobility expectations and behavior in disadvantaged youth. Nature Human Behavior. 2019;3(3):214–20.

48. Browman AS, Destin M, Carswell K, Svoboda RC. Perceptions of social mobility influence academic persistence among low socioeconomic status students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2017;72:45–52.

49. Venkataramani AS, Brigell R, O'Brien R, Chatterjee P, Kawachi I, Tsai AC. Economic opportunity, health behaviours, and health outcomes in the USA: a population-based cross-sectional study. The Lancet Public Health. 2016;1(1):e18–e25. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(16)30005-6 29253376

50. Venkataramani AS, Chatterjee P, Kawachi I, Tsai AC. Economic opportunity, health behaviors, and mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health. 2016;106(3):478–84. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302941 26691108

51. Mullainathan S, Shafir E. Scarcity: The New Science of Having Less and How it Defines Our Lives. New York, NY: Henry Holt; 2013.

52. Schilbach F, Schofield H, Mullainathan S. The psychological lives of the poor. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings. 2016;106(5):435–40.

53. Hummer RA, Hernandez EM. The effect fo educational attainment on adult mortality in the United States. Population Bulletin. 2013;68(1):1–16. 25995521

54. Karas Montez J, Zajacova A, Hayward M, Woolf SH, Chapman D, Beckfield J. Educational disparities in adult mortality across US states: how do they differ, and have they changed since the mid-1980s? Demography. 2019;56(2):621–44. doi: 10.1007/s13524-018-0750-z 30607779

55. Meara ER, Richards S, Cutler DM. The gaps gets bigger: changes in mortality and life expectancy, by education, 1981–2000. Health Affairs. 2008;27(2):350–60. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.350 18332489

56. Montez JK, Hummer RA, Hayward MD. Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: a systematic analysis of functional form. 49. 2012;1(315–336). doi: 10.1007/s13524-011-0082-8 22246797

57. Novosad P, Rafkin C. Mortality change among less educated Americans. Mimeo, Dartmouth University; 2018.

58. Dowd JB, Hamoudi A. Is life expectancy really falling for groups of low-socioeconomic status? Lagged selection bias and artefactual trends in mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2014;43(4):2014.

59. O'Brien R, Venkataramani AS, Tsai AC. Economic opportunity and mortality among U.S. middle aged Whites. Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):e12–e3. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000585 27787290

60. O’Brien R, Neman T, Seltzer N, Evans L, Venkataramani AS. Structural racism, economic opportunity, and racial health disparities: evidence from U.S. counties. SSM—Population Health. 2020;11:e100564.

61. Wilkinson RG, Pickett K. The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. London: Allen Lane; 2009.

62. Kawachi I, Subramanian S. Income inequality. In: Berkman L, Kawachi I, Glymour M, editors. Social Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2014. p. 126–52. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000020 24240651

63. Lynch J. Income inequality and health: expanding the debate. Social science & medicine. 2000;51(7):1001–5; discussion 9–10. Epub 2000/09/27. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(00)00080-0 11005387.

64. Venkataramani AS, Daza S, Emanuel E. Association of social mobility with the income-related longevity gap in the United States: a cross-sectional, county-level study. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.653

65. Fuchs VR. Social determinants of health: caveats and nuances. JAMA. 2017;317(1):25–6. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.17335 28030707

66. Angrist J, Pischke J-S. Mastering ‘Metrics: The Path from Cause to Effect. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2015.

67. Reynolds N. The broad decline in health and human capital of Americans born after 1947. Mimeo, Brown University; 2019.

68. Huang X, Keyes K, Li G. Increasing prescription opioid and heroin overdose mortality in the United States, 1999–2014: an age-period-cohort analysis. American Journal of Public Health. 2017;108(1):131–6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304142 29161066

69. Autor D, Dorn D, Hanson G. When work disappears: manufacturing decline and the falling marriage-market value of men. American Economic Review: Insights. 2019;1(2):161–78.

70. Pierce JR, Schott PK. Trade liberalization and mortality: evidence from U.S. counties. American Economic Review: Insights. 2020;2(1):47–64.

71. Sullivan D, von Wachter TM. Job displacement and mortality: an analysis using administrative data. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2009;124(3):1265–306.

72. Venkataramani AS, Bair EF, O’Brien R, Tsai AC. Association between automotive assembly plant closures and opioid overdose mortality in the United States: a difference-in-differences analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020;180(2):1–9.

73. Elser H, Ben-Michael E, Rehkoph DH, Modrek S, Eisen EA, Cullen MR. Layoffs and the mental health and safety of remaining workers: a difference-in-differences analysis of the US aluminum industry. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2019;73:1094–100. doi: 10.1136/jech-2018-211774 31533963

74. Eisenberg-Guyot J, Mooney SJ, Hagopian A, Barrington WE, Hajat A. Solidarity and disparity: Declining labor union density and changing racial and educational mortality inequities in the United States. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2019 [cited 2020 June 6]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23081.

75. Bailey Z, Krieger N, Agenor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT. Structural racism and health inequity in the USA: evidence and interventions. The Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1453–63.

76. Wildeman C, Wang E. Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. The Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1464–74.

77. Boen C, Keister L, Aronson B. Beyond net worth: racial differences in wealth portfolios and Black-White health inequality across the life course. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2020;6(2):153–69.

78. Bradford A, Bradford W. The effect of evictions on accidental drug and alcohol mortality. Health Services Research. 2020;55:9–17.

79. Seligman HK, Berkowitz SA. Aligning programs and policies to support food security and public health goals in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health. 2019;40:319–37. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044132 30444684

80. Tsai AC. Home foreclosure, health, and mental health: a systematic review of individual, aggregate, and contextual associations. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0123182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123182 25849962

81. Seeman T, Thomas D, Merkin SS, Moore K, Watson K, Karlamangla A. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(13):3296–301.

82. Pool L, Burgard S, Needham B, Elliott M, Langa K, Mendes de Leon C. Association of a negative wealth shock with all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older adults in the United States. JAMA. 2018;319(13):1341–50. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.2055 29614178

83. Schwandt H, von Wachter TM. Socioeconomic decline and health: midlife impacts of graduating in a recession. NBER Working Paper No 26638. 2020.

84. Cutler D, Huang W, Lleras-Muney A. When does education matter? The protective effect of education for cohorts graduating in bad times. Social Science and Medicine. 2015;127:63–73. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.07.056 25113567

85. Ananat EO, Gassman-Pines A, Francis DV, Gibson-Davis CM. Linking job loss, inequality, mental health, and education. Science. 2017;356(6343):1127–8. doi: 10.1126/science.aam5347 28619903

86. Venkataramani AS, Cook E, O’Brien R, Kawachi I, Jena AB, Tsai AC. College affirmative action bans and smoking and alcohol use among underrepresented minority adolescents in the United States: a difference-in-differences study. PLoS Med. 2019;16(6):e1002821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002821 31211777

87. Almond D, Currie J, Duque V. Childhood circumstances and adult outcomes: act II. Journal of Economic Literature. 2018;56(4):1360–446.

88. Case A, Fertig A, Paxson C. The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. Journal of Health Economics. 2005;24(2):365–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2004.09.008 15721050

89. Duncan GJ, Menestrel SL, editors. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty: A Consensus Study Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2019.

90. Hendren N, Sprung-Keyser B. A unified welfare analysis of government policies. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2020;135(3).

91. Currie J, Schwandt H. Mortality inequality: the good news from a county-level approach. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2016;30(2):29–52. doi: 10.1257/jep.30.2.29 27917023

92. Buckles K, Hageman A, Malamud O, Morrill M, Wozniak A. The effects of college education on mortality. Journal of Health Economics. 2016;50:99–114. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2016.08.002 27723470

93. Chetty R, Friedman JN, Saez E, Turner N, Yagan D. Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility. Mimeo, Stanford University; 2017.

94. Katz LF, Goldin C. The Race between Education and Technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2008.

95. Campbell F, Conti G, Heckman J, Moon S, Pinto R, Pungello E, et al. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science. 2014;343(6178):1478–85. doi: 10.1126/science.1248429 24675955

96. Almond D, Currie J, Duque V. Childhood circumstances and adult outcomes: act II. Journal of Economic Literature. 2019;56(4):1360–446.

97. Heckman J, Pinto R, Savelyev P. Understanding the Mechanisms through which an influential early childhood program boosted adult outcomes. American Economic Review. 2013;103(6):2052–86. doi: 10.1257/aer.103.6.2052 24634518

98. Isen A, Rossin-Slater M, Walker WR. Every breath you take—every dollar you’ll make: the long-term consequences of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Journal of Political Economy. 2017;125(3):848–902.

99. Miller S, Wherry LR. The long-term effects of early life Medicaid coverage. Journal of Human Resources. Forthcoming 2018.

100. O’Brien R, Robertson CL. Early-life Medicaid coverage and intergenerational economic mobility. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2018;59(2):300–15. doi: 10.1177/0022146518771910 29672187

101. Chetty R, Nathaniel H, Katz LF. The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: new evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Project. American Economic Review. 2016;106(4):855–902. doi: 10.1257/aer.20150572 29546974

102. Johnson RC, Jackson CK. Reducing inequality through dynamic complementarity: evidence from Head Start and public school spending. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2019;11(4):310–49.

103. Frisvold D, Golberstein E. School quality and the education-health relationship: evidence from blacks in segregated schools. Journal of Health Economics. 2011;30(6):1232–45. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.08.003 21893357

104. Aizenman J, Jinjarak Y, Ngo N, Noy I. Vocational, education, manufacturing, and income distribution: international evidence and case studies. Open Economics Review. 2018;29:641–64.

105. Kaufman JA, Salas-Hernandez L, Komro KA, Livingston MD. Effects of increased minimum wages by unemployment rate on suicide in the USA. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2020. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-212981 31911542

106. Dow WH, Godoy A, Lowenstein CA, Reich M. Can economic policies reduce deaths of despair? NBER Working Paper No 25787. 2019.

107. Gertner AK, Rotter JS, Shafer PR. Association between state minimum wages and suicide rates in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019;56(5):648–54. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.12.008 30905484

108. Cylus J, Glymour MM, Avendano M. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state-fixed effect analysis covering 1968–2008. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2014;180(1):45–52. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu106 24939978

109. Kuka E. Quantifying the benefits of social insurance: unemployment insurance and health. Review of Economics and Statistics. 2020;102(3):490–505.

110. Hyman B. Can displaced labor be retrained? Evidence from quasi-random assignment to trade adjustment assistance. Mimeo, University of Chicago; 2018.

111. Coutts AP, Stuckler D, Cann DJ. The health and wellbeing effects of active labor market programs. In: Huppert FA, Cooper CL, editors. Interventions and Policies to Enhance Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide. Vol VI. John Wiley & Sons; 2014.

112. Ludwig J, Sanbonmatsu L, Gennetian L, Adam E, Duncan GJ, Katz LF, et al. Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes—a randomized social experiment. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365:1509–19. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1103216 22010917

113. Donohue JJ, Heckman J. Continuous versus episodic change: the impact of Civil Rights policy on the economic status of blacks. Journal of Economic Literature. 1991;29(4):1603–43.

114. Chay KY, Guryan J, Mazumdar B. Birth cohort and the Black-White achievement gap: The roles of health soon after birth. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago—Working Paper, No 2008–20. 2009.

115. Pager D. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chigago: University of Chicago Press; 2007.

116. Pager D, Shepherd H. The sociology of discrimination: racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annual Review of Sociology. 2008;34:181–209. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740 20689680

117. Chetty R, Hendren N, Jones MR, Porter SR. Race and economic opportunity in the United States: an intergenerational perspective. NBER Working Paper No 24441. 2018.

118. Johnson RC. Long-run impacts of school desegregation and school quality on adult attainments. NBER Working Paper No 16664. 2015.

119. Miller S, Altekruse S, Johnson N, Wherry LR. Medicaid and mortality: new evidence from linked survey and administrative data. NBER Working Paper No 26081. 2019.

120. Hu L, Kaestner R, Mazumder B, Miller S, Wong A. The effect of Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions on financial well-being. Journal of Public Economics. 2018;163:99–112. doi: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.04.009 30393411

121. Sommers BD, Gawande AA, Baicker K. Health insurance coverage and health—what the recent evidence tells us. New England Journal of Medicine. 2017;377:586–93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsb1706645 28636831

122. Bitler M, Hoynes H. The more things change, the more they stay they same? The safety net and poverty in the Great Recession. Journal of Labor Economics. 2016;34(S1):S403–S44.

123. Herd P, Moynihan DP. Adminstrative Burden: Policymaking by Other Means. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; 2019.

124. Bradford A, Bradford W. The Effect of Evictions on Accidental Drug and Alcohol Mortality. Health Services Research. 2020;55:9–17. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13256 31889303

125. Desmond M, Bell M. Housing, poverty, and the law. Annual Review of Law and Social Science. 2015;11:15–35.

126. Marinescu I. No Strings Attached: The Behavioral Effects of U.S. Unconditonal Cash Transfer Programs. New York: Roosevelt Institute; 2017.

127. Akee RKQ, Copeland WE, Keeler G, Angold A, Costello EJ. Parents’ incomes and children’s outcomes: a quasi-experiment using transfer payments from casino profits. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2010;2(1):86–115. doi: 10.1257/app.2.1.86 20582231

128. Costello EJ, Compton S, Keeler G, Angold A. Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural experiment. JAMA. 2003;290(15):2023–9. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.15.2023 14559956

129. Dolls M, Fuest C, Peichl A. Automatic stabilizers and the economic crisis: US vs. Europe. Journal of Public Economics. 2012;96(3–4):279–94.

130. Darity WA, Mullen K. From Here to Equality: Reparations for Black Americans in the Twenty-First Century. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press; 2020.

131. Acemoglu D, Restrepo P. The wrong kind of AI? Artificial intelligence and the future of labor demand. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and Society. 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 6]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsz022.

132. Tcherneva P. The Case for a Job Guarantee. Cambridge, UK: Polity; 2020.

133. Imbert C, Papp J. Labor market effects of social programs: evidence from India’s employment guarantee. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2015;7(2):233–63.

134. Kangovi S, Mitra N, Grande D, Huo H, Smith RA, Long JA. Community health worker support for disadvantaged patients with multiple chronic diseases: a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Public Health. 2017;107(10):1660–7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303985 28817334

135. Black S, Sisco S, WIlliams T, Brathwaite M, Bhandarker K, Chokshi DA, et al. Return on investments from co-locating tax assistance for low-income persons at clinical sites. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1093–5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0545 32181840

136. Sadowski LS, Kee RA, VanderWeele TJ, Buchanan D. Effect of a housing and case management program on emergency department visits and hospitalizations among chronically ill homeless adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;301(17):1771–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.561 19417194

137. Berkowitz SA, Delahanty L, Terranova J, Steiner B, Ruazol M, Singh R, et al. Medically tailored meal delivery for diabetes patients with food insecurity: a randomized cross-over trial. 34. 2019;3(396–404).

138. Auerbach J, Miller B. Deaths of despair and building a national resilence strategy. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2018;24(4):297–300. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000835 29787503

139. Singh P. Dying and Living in the Neighborhood. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2016.

140. Alley DE, Asomugha CN, Conway PH, Sanghavi DM. Accountable Health Communities—addressing social needs through Medicare and Medicaid. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;374:8–11. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1512532 26731305

141. Khullar D, Chokshi DA. Moving action on place-based health. JAMA Forum [Internet]. 2019 Dec 12 [cited 2020 Jun 6]. Available from: https://newsatjama.jama.com/2019/12/12/jama-forum-moving-to-action-on-place-based-health/.

142. Joynt Maddox K. Financial incentives and vulnerable populations—will alternative payment models help or hurt? New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;378(11):977–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1715455 29539282

143. Bitler M, Hoynes H. Welfare reform and indirect impacts on health. In: Schoeni R, House J, Kaplan G, Pollack H, editors. Making Americans Healthier: Social and Economic Policy as Health Policy. New York: Russell Sage; 2008.

144. Chetty R, Hendren N, Kline P, Saez E. Where is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2014;129(4):1553–623.

145. Chetty R, Cutler D, Stepner M. Effects of local health interventions on inequality in life expectancy: new publicly available data. American Journal of Public Health. 2016;106(12):2154–5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303492 27736211

146. Chetty R, Friedman JN. A practical method to reduce privacy loss when disclosing statistics based on small samples. NBER Working Paper No 25626. 2019.

147. Dawes DE. The Political Determinants of Health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2020.

148. Lynch J. Regimes of Inequality: The Political Economy of Health and Wealth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2020.

149. Hjort J, Moreira D, Rao G, Santini JF. How research affects policy: experimental evidence from 2,150 municipalities. NBER working Paper No 25941. 2019.

150. Basu S, Carney MA, Kenworthy NJ. Ten years after the financial crisis: the long reach of austerity and its global impacts on health. Social Science and Medicine. 2017;187:203–7. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.06.026 28666546

151. Venkataramani AS, Underhill K, Volpp KG. Moving toward evidence-based policy: the value of randomization for program and policy implementation. JAMA. 2020;323(1):21–2.

152. Dulfo E. Field experiments and the practice of policy. American Economic Review. 2020;110(7):1952–73.

153. Autor D, Dorn D, Hanson G, Majlesi K. Importing political polarization? The electoral consequences of rising trade exposure. American Economic Review. Available from: https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.20170011. [cited 2020 Jul 8].

154. Bor J. Diverging life expectancies and voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election. American Journal of Public Health. 2017;107(10):1560–2. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303945 28817322

155. Monnat S, Brown DL. More than a rural revolt: landscapes of despair and the 2016 Presidential election. Journal of Rural Studies. 2017;55:227–36. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.08.010 29269990

156. Hopkins DJ, Parish K. The Medicaid expansion and attitudes towards the affordable care act: testing for a policy feedback on mass opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly. 2019;83(1):123–34.

157. Baicker K, Finkelstein A. The impact of Medicaid expansion on voter participation: evidence from the Oregon Health Insurance Experiment. Quarterly Journal of Political Science. 2019;44:383–400.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS Medicine


2020 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se