­­­­­­Widespread conservation and lineage-specific diversification of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns across arthropods

Autoři: Samuel H. Lewis aff001;  Laura Ross aff004;  Stevie A. Bain aff004;  Eleni Pahita aff002;  Steven A. Smith aff005;  Richard Cordaux aff006;  Eric A. Miska aff001;  Boris Lenhard aff002;  Francis M. Jiggins aff001;  Peter Sarkies aff002;  Stephen A. Smith aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom aff001;  MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, London, United Kingdom aff002;  Institute of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom aff003;  Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom aff004;  Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America aff005;  Laboratoire Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions Universite de Poitiers, France aff006;  Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom aff007;  Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: ­­­­­­Widespread conservation and lineage-specific diversification of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns across arthropods. PLoS Genet 16(6): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008864
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008864


Cytosine methylation is an ancient epigenetic modification yet its function and extent within genomes is highly variable across eukaryotes. In mammals, methylation controls transposable elements and regulates the promoters of genes. In insects, DNA methylation is generally restricted to a small subset of transcribed genes, with both intergenic regions and transposable elements (TEs) depleted of methylation. The evolutionary origin and the function of these methylation patterns are poorly understood. Here we characterise the evolution of DNA methylation across the arthropod phylum. While the common ancestor of the arthropods had low levels of TE methylation and did not methylate promoters, both of these functions have evolved independently in centipedes and mealybugs. In contrast, methylation of the exons of a subset of transcribed genes is ancestral and widely conserved across the phylum, but has been lost in specific lineages. A similar set of genes is methylated in all species that retained exon-enriched methylation. We show that these genes have characteristic patterns of expression correlating to broad transcription initiation sites and well-positioned nucleosomes, providing new insights into potential mechanisms driving methylation patterns over hundreds of millions of years.

Klíčová slova:

Arthropoda – DNA methylation – Drosophila melanogaster – Gene expression – Insects – Invertebrate genomics – Methylation – Nucleosomes


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